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  • Molecular
  • Understanding the developmental pathway through which HSCs arise and the associated molecular mechanisms would therefore provide new insights into stem cell biology and HSC-based regenerative therapies. (biologists.org)
  • The vertebrate NPC has an estimated molecular mass of ≈125 MDa and is composed of ≈80-100 different proteins called nucleoporins, of which 16-20 have been cloned ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Johannes Carolus (Hans) Clevers (born 27 March 1957) is a professor in molecular genetics, a geneticist, physician, medical researcher who was the first to identify stem cells in the intestine and is one of the world's leading researchers on normal stem cells and their potential for regenerative therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Recent studies have shown that nascent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derive directly from the ventral aortic endothelium (VAE) via endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT). (biologists.org)
  • The formation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during development is crucial for the establishment of the blood system ( Orkin and Zon, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • This is done by extracting stem cells from the bone marrow of the patient. (anti-aging-plan.com)
  • The stem cells are then injected into a sheep's fetus, enabling the sheep to integrate the human cells into its system. (anti-aging-plan.com)
  • Further provided are cultures of feeder cells for use in stem cell technology, as well as cultures, culture systems and methods for maintenance and propagating of stem cells in an undifferentiated state as well as for the development. (google.es)
  • The invention relates to stem cells (SC) in particularly to methods and systems for handling human embryonic stem cells (hESC). (google.es)
  • Feeder-free growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. (google.es)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of the blastocyst.The first animal that is developed by this technique is Dolly, the sheep in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ability allows stem cells to create any cell type, which could then be transplanted to replace damaged or destroyed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cloning of Dolly the Sheep over a decade ago, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been considered a promising way to generate personalized stem cells to repair the body without fear of tissue rejection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Without appropriate reprogramming, these data call into question the potential use of animal egg sources to generate patient-specific stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Importantly, except for a study carried out in China (which to-date has proven irreproducible despite attempts by numerous groups in the last half-decade), there is no evidence that patient-specific stem cells can be generated using animal eggs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In 2007 he received a grant of two million euros from the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF) to study the function of stem cells in the normal intestines and in colon cancer, and in 2008 and 2015 he received ERC Advanced Investigator Grants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media He then described the Wnt target Lgr5 as a marker for adult stem cells including those of crypts. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the creation of several ingenious Lgr5-based transgenic mice, he established the intestinal crypt as one of the pre-eminent models to visualize and study adult stem cells in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He described several counter-intuitive characteristics for crypt stem cells: Lgr5 stem cells are abundant, they cycle rapidly, they divide symmetrically, and utilize their Paneth cell-daughters as their niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later deterimined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4 were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This capacity to regenerate does not decline with age and may be linked to their ability to make new stem cells from muscle cells on demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells Epigenome editing Reik W, Dean W, Walter J (August 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • After more than half a century of research and development, the applications of REases have evolved from the cloning of exogenous DNA and genome mapping to more sophisticated applications, such as the identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and the high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. (neb.com)
  • While cleavage division relies on maternal factors in the egg, further development requires activation of the embryonic genome to ensure correct progression of the cell cycle. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The restriction enzymes can be introduced into cells, for use in gene editing or for genome editing in situ, a technique known as genome editing with engineered nucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • the target cells are then transfected with the plasmids, and the gene products are expressed and enter the nucleus to access the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generate
  • Cranial neural crest cell provides patterning information for craniofacial morphogenesis and generate most of the skull bones and the cranial ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rabbit eggs have also been used to generate embryos using cells from cats and panda, among others. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • vRNAs have been cloned from humans, rats, mice, and bullfrogs and their length varies from 86 to 141 bases. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that biochemical fractionation of the telomerase complexes and the level of telomerase RNA in cell extracts showed no detectable alterations in mTep1 -deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • Gfi1 was first identified as causing interleukin 2-independent growth in T cells and lymphomagenesis in mice. (biologists.org)
  • Although Gfi1 -deficient mice initially specify inner ear hair cells, these hair cells are disorganized in both the vestibule and cochlea. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, Gfi1 mutant mice lose all cochlear hair cells just prior to and soon after birth through apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Although these mice develop anaemia, it is likely due to insufficient support from the liver in producing matrix component needed for hematopoiesis rather than an intrinsic defect in the hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • The neural crest (NC) is a population of cells that emigrates from the neural tube early during vertebrate development. (biologists.org)
  • Members of this family appear to play multiple roles during pattern formation of vertebrate embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • Pubmed ID: 11818536 Sertoli cells play a pivotal role in spermatogenesis through their interactions with germ cells. (jove.com)
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertilization
  • Angiosperm seed formation is characterized by the process of double fertilization, during which the female gametophyte receives a pollen tube that delivers two sperm cells to the ovule. (plantcell.org)
  • This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescent antibody staining against neurofilament (green) and Ki-67 (red) in a mouse embryo 12.5 days after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Mesodermal cells form a coherent layer of round cells separating the endoderm and ectoderm. (zfin.org)
  • Cells in the first migratory wave migrate ventrally through the somites and differentiate as neurons and glia, whereas cells in the second wave are specified as melanocytes and migrate dorsolaterally between the dermatome and the overlying ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • These results showed that the cells of the apical ectoderm have a precise fate to form specific regions of the wing. (wikipedia.org)
  • post-implantation stage
  • In the post-implantation stage, methylation patterns are stage- and tissue-specific with changes that would define each individual cell type lasting stably over a long time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lineage
  • We conclude that FOXD3 controls the lineage choice between neural/glial and pigment cells by repressing MITF during the early phase of neural crest migration. (biologists.org)
  • fate
  • The segregation of cells into germ layers is one of the earliest events in the establishment of cell fate in the embryo. (zfin.org)
  • NC cells of the avian trunk emigrate from the neural tube in two waves that are distinct in their time of emigration, pathway of migration and fate. (biologists.org)
  • neurons
  • Northern analysis of cultured cells suggests that it is present in both neurons and glia ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The first neural crest cells to emigrate from the neural tube are specified as neurons and glial cells and are subsequently followed by melanocytes of the skin. (biologists.org)
  • Ganglion mother cells (GMCs) are cells involved in neurogenesis that divide only once to give rise to two neurons, or one neuron and one glial cell or two glial cells, and are present only in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • While each ganglion mother cell necessarily gives rise to two neurons, a neuroblast can asymmetrically divide multiple times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GMC forms two ganglion cells which then develop into neurons or glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Such is the vision of ROBERT LANZA, the chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, a Massachusetts biotech firm that is a leader in developing cell-based therapies. (anti-aging-plan.com)
  • How could cell-based therapies help us create and transplant new organs? (anti-aging-plan.com)
  • There is a high probability that FOX D1 can serve as a novel regulator of glioblastoma cell behaviour that could be used as a novel target for gene targeted therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly
  • Dolly the Sheep became famous for being the first successful case of the reproductive cloning of a mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Also in 2002 he became director of the Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem-Cell Research at the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • By elucidating the REST-p21 genetic mechanism underlying the cell cycle regulation of proliferating cardiomyocytes during cardiac development and regeneration, our study provides an opportunity for developing cell-based therapeutics for heart disease. (nature.com)
  • Thus, a critical amount of Oct-4 is required to sustain stem cell self-renewal, and up- or down regulation induces divergent developmental programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Yet, whether EHT initiates stochastically from the uniform endothelial cells or deterministically from a specialized hemogenic endothelial population is not known. (biologists.org)
  • blastula
  • By labeling individual cells located at the margin of the blastula, we demonstrate that all structures that are endodermal in origin are derived predominantly from the more dorsal and lateral cells of the blastoderm margin. (zfin.org)
  • extensively
  • WORCESTER, Mass., Feb. 2 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTC Pink Sheets: ACTC) and its collaborators reported today that human oocytes (or 'eggs') have the capacity to extensively reprogram adult human cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • binds
  • AP2-alpha is a 52-kD retinoic acid-inducible and developmentally regulated activator of transcription that binds to a consensus DNA-binding sequence GCCNNNGGC in the SV40 and metallothionein promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gfi1b appears to function biochemically in a similar manner to Gfi1, as it binds the same DNA recognition site and represses transcription through its SNAG domain. (biologists.org)
  • development
  • The plant seed is a major nutritional source for humans as well as an essential embryo development and dispersal unit. (plantcell.org)
  • and among these, several receptor-like kinases (RLKs) have been shown to be required for proper endosperm and/or embryo development. (plantcell.org)
  • Previous studies have confirmed the ability of animal eggs to support interspecies cell division to the embryo stage, and in a few closely-related bovid species, successful development to term. (bio-medicine.org)
  • During visual system development, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons leave the retina via optic disc until they reach the optic chiasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924 Spemann and Mangold demonstrated the key importance of cell-cell inductions during animal development. (wikipedia.org)