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  • carcinogenicity
  • Although the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of o-toluidine are not completely understood, the available evidence suggests that they are complex and involve several key modes of action, including metabolic activation that results in binding of reactive metabolites to DNA and proteins, mutagenicity, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal damage, and cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • ISBN missing] Evidence suggesting that this pathway is relevant to humans comes from numerous studies that detected o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts in humans (following both occupational and non-occupational exposures), consistent with observations in experimental animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIOSH
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile: Toluidine -NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • dose
  • Extensive absorption (at least 92% of the administered oral dose) of o-toluidine from the gastrointestinal tract was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • bladder
  • N-Hydroxy-o-toluidine can be either metabolized to o-nitrosotoluene or conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulfate and transported to the urinary bladder via the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once in the bladder, N-hydroxy-o-toluidine can be released from the conjugates in an acidic urine environment to either react directly with DNA or be bio-activated via sulfation or acetylation by cytosolic sulfotransferases or N-acetyltransferases (presumably NAT1). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986, 57, 27-40 Stasik M.J., Urinary bladder cancer after 4-chloro-o-toluidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • Identification of urinary metabolites of orally administered N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine in male F344 rats. (nih.gov)
  • substances
  • Major metabolites were determined to be 4-amino-m-cresol and to a lesser extent, N-acetyl-4-amino-m-cresol, azoxytoluene, o-nitrosotoluene, N-acetyl-o-toluidine, N-acetyl-o-aminobenzyl alcohol, anthranilic acid, N-acetyl-anthranilic acid, 2-amino-m-cresol, p-hydroxy-o-toluidine and other unidentified substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Support for this mechanism comes from studies of oxidative DNA damage induced by o-toluidine metabolites in cultured human cells (HL-60), calf thymus DNA, and DNA fragments from key genes thought to be involved in carcinogenesis (the c-Ha-ras oncogene and the p53 tumor-suppressor gene). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Because special names exist for benzene rings modified with one or two of these functional groups, several synonymous chemical names may be encountered: 3-chloro-4-methylaniline or 3-chloro-4-methylbenzenamine, 2-chloro-4-aminotoluene, or 3-chloro-p-toluidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • o-Toluidine was negative in the micronucleus test in mice in vivo, but induced cell transformations in the BHK (baby hamster kidney) assay. (cdc.gov)