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  • tumor
  • Blood samples were performed at 0, 30, 60 and 90 min and 2,4,6 and 24 h after treatment to evaluate interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) plasma concentrations. (unipg.it)
  • interleukin-1 recept
  • One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/interleukin-1-receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adapter protein) and MyD88, which leads to the NFkB activation and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (reactome.org)
  • macrophages
  • Role of the Toll-like receptor 4/NF- κ B pathway in saturated fatty acid-induced inflammatory changes in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 84-91, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Resistin also regulates the synthesis and secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 in macrophages via a nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway promoting insulin resistance ( 4 , 6 , 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PRRs
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense for protecting the host against invading microbial pathogens and involves a number of host defense systems, including chemokine-directed movement of inflammatory cells and pathogen detection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) [ 1 - 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pathways
  • Interestingly, we also report for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct binding of resistin to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to the activation of the associated proinflammatory pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chemokine receptor ligation ultimately leads to cell signaling events via PI3K, MAPK/AP-1, and the NF-κB pathways [ 5 - 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE- Tall-like receptor (TLR)4 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance by activating inflammatory pathways, including inhibitor of κB (IκB)/nuclear factor κB (NFκB). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, recent reports demonstrate that FFAs directly can stimulate plasma membrane receptors ( 2 , 3 ), suggesting an alternate model in which FFAs cause insulin resistance by stimulating inflammatory pathways through the direct activation of plasma membrane receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • kinase
  • Central resistin treatment inhibited insulin-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), AKT, and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 associated with reduced IR expression and with upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B, two negative regulators of insulin signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mice
  • Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. (jci.org)
  • Overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 amplifies the host response to lipopolysaccharide and provides a survival advantage in transgenic mice," Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 12, pp. 6141-6150, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • TLR 10 is a pseudogene in mice, but is functional in humans ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, CCR4 appears to be a key receptor in the innate immune response as CCR4 −/− mice are more resistant to LPS-induced sepsis [ 16 , 18 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • C3H/HeJ mice show dysfunction of TLR-4. (arvojournals.org)
  • In contrast, C3H/HeN mice show normal TLR-4 function. (arvojournals.org)
  • Induction of RGC degeneration with TLR-4 ligand was studied with cell viability assay using RGC-5 cells and intravitreal injection of TLR-4 ligand on C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum Increases Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor Development in Mice by Activating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signali. (nih.gov)
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum Increases Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor Development in Mice by Activating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling to Nuclear Factor-κB, and Up-regulating Expression of MicroRNA-21. (nih.gov)
  • defense
  • Activation of microglia, bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells that function as the resident immune defense system of the brain ( 1 ), is a characteristic feature of most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia complex, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as ischemia and posttraumatic brain injury ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • proinflammatory
  • To maximize CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming while minimizing regulatory T-cell expansion, DCs need to be fully activated or "licensed" ( 4 ), expressing high levels of costimulatory molecules like CD40, CD80, and CD86 and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • activation
  • Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2 , but also partially via this receptor (PubMed:16622205). (rcsb.org)
  • The iCD40 receptor permits targeted, reversible activation of CD40 in vivo , potentially bypassing the essential role of CD4 + T cells for activation of DCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • regulation
  • Genetic regulation of this response has been localized to the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, through study of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr inbred strains. (rupress.org)
  • cytokine
  • quantification is shown in U and X . ( Y and Z ) IL-17A ELISA in the intestinal lysates of mouse ( Y ) and human ( Z ). Human data are representative of 6 individuals for flow cytometry, 4 individuals for immunohistochemistry, and 6 for cytokine analysis. (jci.org)
  • Crucial
  • However, the resistin receptor and the molecular mechanisms mediating its effects in the hypothalamus, crucial for energy homeostasis control, and key insulin-sensitive tissues are still unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)