• Tocolytic agents prevent preterm labor or contractions. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, when uterine contractions are not controlled by tocolytics in pregnant patients with preterm labor associated with inflammation, labor induction or pregnancy termination may become significant options in clinical practice. (utmb.edu)
  • Despite of the availability of several drugs that inhibit pre-term contractions (tocolytics), the pharmacotherapy of PTB is inappropriate. (mdpi.com)
  • DEFINITION Reduced uterine contractions following administration of myometrial relaxing agents: Tocolytic drugs. (authorstream.com)
  • The suppression of contractions is often only partial and tocolytics can only be relied on to delay birth for several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common regimen used in trials for acute tocolytic treatment was 10-30 mg as an initial dose, followed by 10-20 mg every 4-8 hours until contractions ceased or for up to 48 hours. (who.int)
  • Treatment intended to reduce uterine contractions include tocolytic agents, such as indomethacin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Women whose preterm labour is stopped with tocolytic therapy (medication to reduce uterine contractions) remain at high risk of preterm birth. (cochrane.org)
  • A variety of agents (tocolytics) are used to halt the uterine contractions. (cochrane.org)
  • Magnesium maintenance therapy is one of the types of tocolytic therapy used after an episode of threatened preterm labour (usually treated with an initial dose of tocolytic therapy ) in an attempt to prevent the onset of further preterm contractions. (cochrane.org)
  • Tocolytic agent: A medication that can inhibit labor, slow down or halt the contractions of the uterus. (drugster.info)
  • A review article concluded that there is no improvement in perinatal outcome with prolonged tocolytics, and tocolysis beyond 48 hours is not clinically indicated. (medscape.com)
  • When tocolysis is considered in this context, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker) is the preferred agent. (who.int)
  • Therefore, when tocolysis is considered, a combination of tocolytic agents should not be used. (who.int)
  • However, total infant death was more common when this group was combined with the unblinded cohort in which magnesium sulfate tocolysis was compared with other tocolytic agents. (acog.org)
  • At present, management of preterm labor may include the use of tocolytic agents, corticosteroids and antibiotics. (aafp.org)
  • Although tocolytics have not been shown to improve neonatal outcomes, they can delay preterm delivery long enough for antenatal corticosteroids to be administered or for the mother to be transported to a tertiary care facility. (bmj.com)
  • Most efforts so far have been tertiary interventions, such as regionalised care, and treatment with antenatal corticosteroids, tocolytic agents, and antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • The group considered studies on tocolytics (e.g. calcium channel blocker) + antenatal corticosteroids versus placebo + antenatal corticosteroids for improving neonatal outcomes a research priority. (who.int)
  • To compare the tocolytic effects of magnesium sulfate, ritodrine, terbutaline, and nifedipine on human myometrial strips. (nih.gov)
  • The study was undertaken to investigate the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the uterine contraction inhibitory effects of tocolytic agents such as ritodrine, magnesium, and diethylamine/nitric oxide (DEA/NO), and on prostaglandin (PG) E2 and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite (NOx) production in pregnant mice at midgestation. (utmb.edu)
  • 1980 Subsequently new agents invented that stimulate ß2 receptors and used as tocolytics without side effects, Ritodrine Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Clenbuterol, Orciprenaline. (authorstream.com)
  • Tocolytic effects of KUR-1246 & Ritodrine hydrochloride on Oxytocin-Induced Uterine Contraction in Pregnant Sheep. (authorstream.com)
  • Despite postoperative administration of tocolytic agents, including ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulphate, spontaneous labor pain occurred, resulting in extremely preterm birth at 23 weeks, 3 days of gestation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The beta-adrenergic agent ritodrine hydrochloride is commonly used for the treatment of preterm labor in Japan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate were administered as tocolytic agents for preterm labor and cervical insufficiency [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparison between nifedipine and ritodrine as an effective tocolytic agent for preterm labour. (pakmedinet.com)
  • Indomethacin and nifedipine may be alternative choices for tocolytic therapy, but each has different adverse reactions that also make them less than ideal agents. (nih.gov)
  • Indomethacin Other agents - e.g. glyceryl trinitrate, Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum, omega-3 long chain Polyunsaturates and Magnesium sulfate. (authorstream.com)
  • In the case of the tocolytic agent indomethacin, we know it impacts blood flow but there have been no large randomized studies to evaluate the effects on the baby," Amin added. (medindia.net)
  • Objective To determine the most effective tocolytic agent at delaying delivery. (bmj.com)
  • Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. (bioportfolio.com)
  • So, drugs that produce this effect are termed uterine myorelaxants, tocolytic drugs or simply tocolytics. (authorstream.com)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as well as the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists recommend nifedipine as a first-line tocolytic in case of acute threatened preterm labour. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 6 7 8 9 10 A recent pooled meta-analysis and decision analysis of trials on tocolytics showed that to delay delivery for 48 hours and seven days, prostaglandin inhibitors were the best first line tocolytic. (bmj.com)
  • Which is the first line tocolytic agent? (brainscape.com)
  • There is no clear first-line tocolytic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are constantly gaining in importance, and increasingly more significant than traditional tocolytics such as beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockers or magnesium sulphate. (mdpi.com)
  • asthma, maintenance and belongs to the drug classes adrenergic bronchodilators, tocolytic agents. (drugs.com)
  • Tocolytic therapy includes calcium channel blocking agents, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, magnesium sulfate, and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Here we show for the first time in obstetrics the use of a targeted nanoparticle directed to the pregnant uterus and loaded with a tocolytic for reducing its placental passage and sustaining its efficacy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to replace the bulging fetal membranes back into the uterus, the obstetrician may request administration of a tocolytic agent or a general anesthetic with administration of a volatile anesthetic agent. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Many of these oxytocin receptor antagonists are used only as pharmacological tools, while others have tocolytic action. (hindawi.com)
  • Research into biochemical markers such as fetal fibronectin, possible infectious etiologies such as bacterial vaginosis, and the use of more selective tocolytic therapy offers hope that new therapeutic approaches may increase rates of fetal survival. (aafp.org)
  • In tocolytic therapy efforts are currently being made to find combinations of tocolytic agents that yield better therapeutic action. (mdpi.com)
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the tocolytic efficacy for prolongation of pregnancy with oral nifedipine in comparison to salbutamol , and to evaluate side effects of nifedipine . (bvsalud.org)
  • The GDG agreed that prolongation of pregnancy for 2-7 days (which is achievable by few tocolytic agents) is an intermediate outcome that has not been demonstrated to improve critical neonatal outcomes. (who.int)
  • The GDG agreed that in women at risk of imminent preterm birth who have an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy, the acute use of a tocolytic drug to prolong pregnancy (up to 48 hours) can be considered to provide a window for administration of antenatal corticosteroid and/or in-utero fetal transfer to an appropriate neonatal healthcare setting, although there is currently no direct evidence to show that this measure improves neonatal outcomes. (who.int)
  • Consideration of the use of tocolytics should be individualized and tocolytics should not be used when there is any obstetric or medical contraindication to prolonging the pregnancy. (who.int)
  • Tocolytic agents are widely used today to treat premature labor and permit pregnancy to proceed and so permit the fetus to gain in size and maturity before being born. (drugster.info)
  • Atosiban is today the only oxytocin receptor antagonist that is available as a tocolytic. (hindawi.com)
  • While atosiban is an oxytocin receptor (OTR) antagonist used for the management of preterm labor [ 8 ], research is ongoing for the tocolytic properties of various other OTR antagonists. (hindawi.com)
  • Extensive clinical investigations have shown Atosiban to be at least as effective as current tocolytic agents. (prospecbio.com)
  • We speculate that during labor the elevated levels of prostaglandin E may induce similar effects on the myometrium, thereby decreasing the efficacy of beta-agonists as tocolytics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Myometrial strips from laboring patients are more resistant to inhibition, with none of the agents being superior. (nih.gov)
  • Tocolytic: Relating to the inhibition of labor, delaying or halting labor. (drugster.info)
  • Isoxsuprine is used in humans for treatment of premature labor, i.e. a tocolytic, and as a vasodilator for the treatment of cerebral vascular insufficiency, Raynaud's phenomenon, and other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since oxytocin contributes to myometrial contractility, its receptor has been a target for tocolytic agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Current treatment options for PTL are mainly limited to tocolytic agents, which aim to block myometrial contractility. (jimmunol.org)
  • Prostaglandin inhibitors and calcium channel blockers were the tocolytics with the best probability of being ranked in the top three medication classes for the outcomes of 48 hour delay in delivery, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal mortality, and maternal side effects (all cause). (bmj.com)
  • In this review, no clear benefit for COX inhibitors was shown over placebo or any other tocolytic agents. (cochrane.org)
  • Further well-designed tocolytic studies are required to determine short- and longer-term infant benefit of COX inhibitors over placebo and other tocolytics, particularly CCBs and ORAs. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes of COX inhibitors administered as a tocolytic agent to women in preterm labour when compared with (i) placebo or no intervention and (ii) other tocolytics. (cochrane.org)
  • Cholinesterase  Neuromuscular  Antidepressants - 10 Inhibitors  CNS Stimulants  Antipsychotics - Blocking Agents  Antiepileptics  Sedative Hypnotics - Tricyclic  Mood Stabilizers  Anxiolytic - Non- Atypical & Conventional  Anesthetics (Local. (scribd.com)
  • Subspecialist consultation (MFM) is recommended in the presence of suspected fetal anomalies because tocolytics are generally contraindicated for any congenital anomaly incompatible with life. (medscape.com)
  • Tocolytic therapy is provided when delivery would result in premature birth, postponing delivery long enough for the administration of glucocorticoids, which accelerate fetal lung maturity but may take one to two days before its effects are seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, clinically used tocolytics are frequently inefficient and cross the placenta causing fetal side effects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gyetvai K, Hannah ME, Hodnett ED, Ohlsson A. Tocolytics for preterm labor: a systematic review. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have also been used as tocolytic agents to prevent premature labour and its complications. (cfp.ca)
  • 9) Interventions can be directed at all women for primary prevention and reduction of the risk of preterm birth (e.g. smoking cessation programme) or aimed at minimizing the risk in women with known risk factors (e.g. progestational agents, cervical cerclage). (who.int)
  • It may be performed by injection of the agent between the vertebral spines in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many different classes of drugs have been used for tocolytic therapy. (bmj.com)
  • 5 Several Cochrane reviews have compared individual tocolytic drugs with placebo or other tocolytics. (bmj.com)
  • Application of tocolytic drugs in veterinary obstetrics for correction of dystocias, caesarean section, fetotomy and postponement of parturition. (authorstream.com)
  • However, these tocolytic drugs have proved to be largely ineffective at preventing preterm delivery, and there is little evidence that they actually improve neonatal outcome ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interventions such as tocolytic drugs and other methods have been used in an attempt to facilitate ECV. (who.int)
  • In addition, usage of many drugs at the same time or in close sequence, a practice that makes the assignment of toxicity to a specific agent difficult. (ispub.com)
  • What are the medical contraindications to tocolytics for the treatment of preterm labor? (medscape.com)
  • What are contraindications for tocolytic therapy in the treatment of preterm labor? (medscape.com)
  • In addition to drug-specific contraindications,[citation needed] several general factors may contraindicate delaying childbirth with the use of tocolytic medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study selection Randomised controlled trials of tocolytic therapy in women at risk of preterm delivery. (bmj.com)
  • Magnesium was less likely than the alternative tocolytics (betamimetics) to result in side effects, particularly palpitations or tachycardia, although diarrhoea was more likely. (cochrane.org)
  • Betamimetics are commonly used tocolytic agents, but their mechanism of action affects multiple organ systems leading to numerous adverse events. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • No class of tocolytic was significantly superior to placebo in reducing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • This study was conducted to determine maternal and neonatal outcome of patients exposed to prolonged tocolytic magnesium sulfate. (wiley.com)
  • In a study on 259 pregnant asthmatics who used inhaled beta sympathomimetics, 180 of whom used these agents during the first trimester , there was no increase in congenital anomalies or adverse perinatal outcome attributable to the therapy (5). (americanpregnancy.org)
  • This recommendation was informed by the lack of substantive benefits of tocolytic treatment compared with no tocolytic treatment, in terms of reducing adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. (who.int)
  • Tocolytics should be used with considerable caution in pregnant patients with cardiac disease, especially those who require medication or have a history of congestive heart failure, cardiac surgery, significant pulmonary disease, renal failure, or maternal infection (ie, pneumonia, appendicitis, pyelonephritis). (medscape.com)
  • This medication is an antiviral agent, prescribed for herpes simplex, genital herpes, herpes zoster and chickenpox. (medindia.net)
  • This medication is a topical agent, prescribed for psoriasis, and other skin diseases. (medindia.net)
  • This medication is a mucolytic agent, prescribed for various respiratory diseases such as emphysema with bronchitis pneumoconiosis, chronic inflammatory pulmonary conditions, tracheobronchitis (respiratory tract inflammation), bronchiectasis, bronchitis with bronchospasm asthma. (medindia.net)
  • Subsequent tocolytic maintenance medication has been advocated. (cochrane.org)
  • In spite of its large use in obstetrics as a tocolytic agent, nifedipine is prescribed off-label. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tocolytic therapy to delay preterm delivery is an important intervention in obstetrics. (bmj.com)
  • A retrospective review of maternal and neonatal charts (1995-2003) of pregnancies that received tocolytic magnesium sulfate. (wiley.com)
  • Additionally, it has a favourable adverse effect profile as compared with the majority of other tocolytics. (mdpi.com)
  • Tocolytic therapy for. (bmj.com)
  • Results Of the 3263 titles initially identified, 95 randomized controlled trials of tocolytic therapy were reviewed. (bmj.com)
  • 2 Tocolytic therapy may therefore have an important role in improving outcomes from preterm delivery. (bmj.com)
  • In order to halt preterm labor or to simply delay delivery while antenatal corticosteroid therapy is administered, tocolytic therapy may be administered. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Ca 2+ channel blockers (CCBs), and especially nifedipine and nicardipine, are among the frequently used tocolytics. (mdpi.com)
  • Although they do not meet the criteria of ideal tocolytics, CCBs have certain properties that make them preferable to other tocolytics. (mdpi.com)
  • For examples Isoxsuprine lactate was 1st agents to be used for treatment of labor. (authorstream.com)
  • and 6) long-term medical treatment that may affect glucose metabolism, such as steroids and β-mimetic tocolytic agents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • But many obstetricians believe it is more effective and has fewer side effects for the mother than other commonly used tocolytic agents, and so they may use it for woman whose babies are farther along. (medindia.net)
  • Part of the controversy surrounding tocolytic agents involves the difficulty in comparing data from different trials, particularly because the criteria for diagnosis of preterm labor vary significantly. (nih.gov)
  • A lettuce and skullcap mixture can be used as an herbal agent for sleep disorders. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Each tocolytic has a unique mechanism of action, side effects, and degree of complexity to administer. (bmj.com)
  • There were 17 studies involving 1876 women assessing tocolytic agents including beta stimulants, calcium channel blockers and nitric oxide donors. (who.int)
  • Tocolytic parenteral beta stimulants were effective in increasing cephalic presentations in labour (average risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.48, five studies, 459 women, low-quality evidence) and in reducing the number of caesarean sections (average RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.88, six studies, 742 women, moderate-quality evidence). (who.int)
  • In strips from nonpregnant patients, nifedipine was found to be the most potent tocolytic. (nih.gov)
  • These agents were found to be equally less effective in myometrial strips from laboring patients. (nih.gov)
  • Tocolytics are not indicated in patients with either suspected or confirmed IAI. (medscape.com)
  • These patients have increased sensitivity to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Tocolytic treatments (acute and maintenance treatments) are not recommended for women at risk of imminent preterm birth for the purpose of improving newborn outcomes. (who.int)
  • Magnesium sulfate continues to be widely used as a tocolytic agent despite a paucity of evidence supporting its use. (wiley.com)
  • In 2013, the FDA issued a safety alert advising against the off-label administration of magnesium sulfate injections to pregnant women for more than 5-7 days as a means of stopping preterm labor, as this agent can lead to low calcium levels and bone abnormalities in the fetus. (medscape.com)
  • In this paper, we summarize the action of oxytocin and its receptor and we present an overview of the clinical and experimental data of oxytocin antagonists and their tocolytic action. (hindawi.com)
  • A serum aminotransferase supplement withdrawn from clinical use of alternative agents are virostatic. (goodbelly.com)
  • In many cases, drug induced lung disease is dose related, particularly with cytotoxic agents. (ispub.com)