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  • neuronal
  • Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis. (peerj.com)
  • Tumor
  • In total, 21 GM3, 28 SulfoHexCer, 26 SulfoHex2Cer, 10 PG, 19 PI, 4 LPI, and 7 PS are determined in the aqueous phase of lipidomic extracts from kidney tumor tissue samples and surrounding normal tissue samples of 20 RCC patients. (springer.com)
  • Tumor immune escape and angiogenesis contribute to tumor progression, and gangliosides and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 are implicated in these processes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some characteristics of tumor biology, like deregulated expression of gangliosides and constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, have been implicated in tumor-host interactions, i.e. tumor immune escape and angiogenesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These circulating gangliosides are thought to be involved in tumor-host interactions facilitating metastasis through tumor immune escape and tumor-associated angiogenesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect malignant progression, which makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the expression of an α-2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6GALNAC5) has been shown to mediate metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain by enhancing adhesion of tumor cells to brain tissue ( 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • receptors
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • therapeutic targets
  • As both are considered as novel therapeutic targets, we assessed the possible association of ganglioside GM3 expression and STAT3 activation with suppression of dendritic cell (DC) activation and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • pathogenesis
  • These results and the finding of enhanced expression of GM3 synthase in models of insulin resistance have led to the suggestion that GM3 ganglioside overexpression may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through a negative modulation on insulin receptor signaling ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • sialyltransferases
  • Remarkably, the diversity of gangliosides is generated by only a few glycosyltransferases and sialyltransferases that act within a combinatorial biosynthetic pathway [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The gangliosides profile and mRNA level of sialyltransferases of the orbital tissues from TAO patients ( n = 5) and non-TAO subjects ( n = 4) were investigated. (arvojournals.org)
  • molecules
  • They were discovered by Ernst Klenk in the 1940s, who proposed the term "ganglioside" due to the abundance of these molecules in "Ganglionzellen" (neurons). (frontiersin.org)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that many cellular events, including differentiation, growth, signaling, interactions, and immune reactions are highly influenced by gangliosides, and that these molecules may also cause malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • GSLs
  • A steadily increasing number of subsequent studies described aberrant expression and function of GSLs and related enzymes in cancer cells and tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • analyses
  • Further analyses by comparative 2D-TLC with adult fish and chick embryo brains indicate the pentasialilated ganglioside GP1c as the possible structure of XI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • brain
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the levels and distribution of gangliosides and cholesterol in different brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and hypothalamus) in a model using IDUA knockout (KO) mice (C57BL/6). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 11 chickens were inoculated with a brain ganglioside extract in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and six chickens inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. (peerj.com)
  • A second study was performed five healthy quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ) that were divided into three groups: Two quaker parrots received purified gangliosides in FCA, two received a crude brain extract in FCA, and one control quaker parrot received FCA alone. (peerj.com)
  • mice
  • These mutant mice were unable to synthesize GM3 ganglioside, a simple and widely distributed glycosphingolipid. (pnas.org)
  • We have found that mice without the capacity to synthesize GM3 ganglioside had enhanced phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor after ligand binding. (pnas.org)
  • human
  • It is a complete and ready to use reagent for isolation of total RNA from tissues and cells of human, animal, plant, yeast, bacterial, and viral origin. (amsbio.com)
  • expression
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue array to determine N -glycolyl GM3 (GM3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression in 176 primary NSCLC resections. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CD83 + DCs were less frequent in NSCLC tissues with high GM3 expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of these effects can be explained by changes in the expression of receptor for AGEs (RAGE), associated with galectin-3 deletion and consequent changes in AGE/ALE tissues levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Melanoma is associated with high expression of ganglioside GD3, which has been targeted with modest effect in antibody therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Another (disialo)ganglioside, GD3, has low expression on retina pigment cells, central nervous system, and normal melanocytes ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • results
  • Our results show that GM3 ganglioside is a negative regulator of insulin signaling, making it a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • cells
  • CD1a + cells (immature DCs) were more frequent in NSCLC tissues as compared to peritumoral lung tissue, while CD83 + cells (mature DCs) were more frequent in peritumoral lung tissue. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Detachin provides quick, gentle, and effective detachment of a wide variety of adherent cells, including primary cells, from all known tissue culture plastic ware. (amsbio.com)
  • nervous system
  • In Tay-Sachs disease, or amaurotic (blind) idiocy, gangliosides are deposited in body tissues, chiefly those of the central nervous system, which deteriorates, resulting in severe mental deficiency. (britannica.com)
  • Those involving the nervous system result in spectacular neuropathology and provide the best evidence for the types of glycoconjugates synthesized by nervous tissue, as well as their rate of turnover. (springer.com)
  • polar
  • Negative-ion hydrophilic liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC/ESI-MS) method has been optimized for the quantitative analysis of ganglioside (GM3) and other polar lipid classes, such as sulfohexosylceramides (SulfoHexCer), sulfodihexosylceramides (SulfoHex2Cer), phosphatidylglycerols (PG), phosphatidylinositols (PI), lysophosphatidylinositols (LPI), and phosphatidylserines (PS). (springer.com)