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  • cDNA
  • The cDNA was cloned in the course of investigating transcription factors that bind to Sp1 consensus sequences, using the in situ filter detection method, and it was found to encode a protein having the same C 2 -H 2 zinc finger motif as Sp1. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present investigation, we cloned and characterized a murine Sp1-related zinc finger transcription factor cDNA, which is expressed in the adult and developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • When SS cDNA, which reduces SS mRNA concentration and therefore reduces expression of SS, is introduced into the plant cells, mRNA levels of ADS dramatically increased (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Sanford began her career as a research scientist as part of the tissue culture section of the National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, she was a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the American Society of Human Genetics, the Tissue Culture Association, and the International Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expertise in human egg biology led Kiessling to develop the country's first human egg donor program for stem cell research in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 - Oregon State University Commencement Address 2014 - Honorary Doctorate in Cell and Molecular Biology, Oregon State University Kiessling has published more than 100 scientific papers and given more than 60 lectures to audiences around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 2003 he was a Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Connecticut. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Even within humans and other mortal species, there are cells with the potential for immortality: cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the HeLa cell line, and specific stem cells such as germ cells (producing ova and spermatozoa). (wikipedia.org)
  • August 1, 1920 - October 4, 1951) was an African American woman whose cancer cells are the source of the HeLa cell line, the first immortalized cell line and one of the most important cell lines in medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line will reproduce indefinitely under specific conditions, and the HeLa cell line continues to be a source of invaluable medical data to the present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells were then cultured by George Otto Gey who created the cell line known as HeLa, which is still used for medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue samples from her tumors were taken without consent during treatment and these samples were then subsequently cultured into the HeLa cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] He was the first to clone the immortalized HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • The best route for clonal selection is to plate a slightly higher cell number in a well and then perform 1:2 serial dilutions across a 96-well plate. (altogen.com)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the total immunoglobulin level is typically elevated in multiple myeloma, the majority of the antibodies are ineffective monoclonal antibodies from the clonal plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell res
  • Ann A. Kiessling is an American reproductive biologist and one of the leaders in human parthenogenic stem cell research at The Bedford Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling currently conducts research at the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need to conduct biomedical research in areas not funded by the federal government led to the incorporation of the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling is a member of the California (California Constitution Article XXXV) and Connecticut Stem Cell Research Advisory Boards, and a member of the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees (ESCROS) for Harvard University, Joslin Diabetes Center and Children's Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under three Presidential Administrations, Dr. Skirboll was the agency's lead on policy issues related to fetal tissue, cloning, and stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The potent neurotrophic factor glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Human iPS cells were created from skin cells by direct delivery of proteins, thus eliminating the harmful risks associated with genetic and chemical manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloma cells produce monoclonal proteins of varying types, most commonly immunoglobulins (antibodies) and free light chains, resulting in abnormally high levels of these proteins in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Related genes to: Mouse IgG2a, Clone MRC OX_34, Negative Control, for use w_Human cells_tissues, ALEXA 700 conj. (clonagen.com)
  • We successfully isolated 480 CD19+ B-cells from the gingival tissue, and to this date, we have analysed 110 variable heavy chain Ig genes (IGHV). (ovid.com)
  • Compared to healthy controls, RA/PD B-cells showed decrease in VH3 and JH5 genes, and increase in VH4, JH4 and JH6. (ovid.com)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • A. DNA cloning via PCR and a plasmid. (epochtimes.today)
  • Co-transfection of the Drosophila SL2 cells using mGIF expression plasmid and reporter constructs having Sp1 binding sites indicated that mGIF represses transcription from a TATA-containing as well as from a TATA-less promoter. (jneurosci.org)
  • successfully
  • We have been able to successfully isolate and clone a number of gingival-tissue-derived B-cells. (ovid.com)
  • Fortunately, the same is not true for humans, where stem cells have been successfully differentiated into different cells, including beating cardiac muscle cells, smooth muscle, and insulin-producing cells, among others. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using this approach, CD8 + T cells specific for HLA-A*03:01- and HLA-B*07:02-presented mCALR peptides and an HLA-A*11:01-presented mutant FBXW7 (mFBXW7) peptide were successfully isolated. (springer.com)
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Mice are the most commonly used laboratory animals for research, and some mouse stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are also widely used in basic research. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lanza and his colleagues were the first to demonstrate that nuclear transplantation could be used to reverse the aging process and to generate immune-compatible tissues, including the first organ grown in the laboratory from cloned cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1974 Sanford was appointed head of the cell physiology and oncogenesis section of the NCI's Laboratory of Biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells were generated in 1973 by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex van der Eb's laboratory in Leiden, the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961). (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time in NY, he was Director for nine years of the post-doctoral Course on Quantitative Animal Virology and Cell Culture that was taught in the summer at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (NY). (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Atala and other regenerative medicine experts view nuclear transfer as one promising avenue to create tissues and organs that could be used for patients with various diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • vectors
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves, and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability by which they avoid dying of old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of "age classes" among bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADS has been cloned and expressed in bacteria cells as a way to produce artemisinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Therefore, the T cell subsets that mature during the stages of tumor growth, differently contribute to disease progression and/or regression. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that percentage of infiltrating effector T cells decreased in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa and that the tumor microenvironment negatively influences the cytolytic activity of T lymphocytes reactive to cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we found that the tumor tissue was infiltrated by a large amount of "not effector" T (neT) cells with a regulatory or an anergic profile, which are unable to kill cancer cells, may be contributing to the CRC promotion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, monitoring the changes in circulating neT cells' frequencies after the tumor removal, we confirmed the role of cancer in the modulation of immune system, in particular, in supporting a Tregs-mediated immunosuppression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistent with immunosurveillance theory, the immune system is important to protect the host from developing tumors ( 2 ), but that the cancer cells can develop immunoevasion strategies ( 3 ) and also, the immune cells can act, supporting the tumor progression ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor consists of numerous cancer cells, the size and shape of a tumor may not be an accurate measure as it is an abnormal growth [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • It results from the replacement of normal bone marrow by infiltrating tumor cells and inhibition of normal red blood cell production (hematopoiesis) by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lacks was the unwitting source of these cells from a tumor biopsied during treatment for cervical cancer at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. in 1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanza demonstrated that techniques used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be used to generate embryonic stem cells without embryonic destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • With knowledge of the cell line's genetic provenance becoming public, its use for medical research and for commercial purposes continues to raise concerns about privacy and patients' rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • As many as 3,000 Americans die every day from diseases that may someday be treatable with tissues created through stem cells, according to the Centers for Disease Control. (innovations-report.com)
  • Advanced Cell Technology has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for human trials using human embryonic stem cells to treat degenerative eye diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells, called retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), are often the first to die off in age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases, which in turn leads to loss of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the myeloproliferative disorders, diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced at some stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • For humans, stem cells generated through nuclear transfer could be harvested and used as a source of genetically matched cells for transplantation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Many vertebrates such as fish, birds and amphibians do not suffer presbycusis in old age as they are able to regenerate their cochlear sensory cells, whereas mammals including humans have genetically lost this ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Several additional transcription factors having the same zinc finger motif as Sp1 have been cloned and found to bind to the GC box sequence. (jneurosci.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Myelofibrosis is a form of myeloid metaplasia, which refers to a change in cell type in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow, and often the two terms are used synonymously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor by the abnormal hematopoietic cell clone (particularly by megakaryocytes) leads to replacement of the hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow by connective tissue via collagen fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is extramedullary hematopoiesis, i.e. blood cell formation occurring in sites other than the bone marrow, as the haemopoetic cells are forced to migrate to other areas, particularly the liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma cells can also form a mass in the bone marrow or soft tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple myeloma is diagnosed based on blood or urine tests finding abnormal antibodies, bone marrow biopsy finding cancerous plasma cells, and medical imaging finding bone lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • The stages depict the introduction of diploid nucleus from a mature cell into an enucleated egg cell. (epochtimes.today)
  • The encoded protein is involved the later stages of cell envelope formation in the epidermis and hair follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigation
  • In conclusion, while we found no evidence for mCALR derived neoepitope presentation in the context of the HLA class I alleles studied, our data suggests that the recurrent pR465H mutation in FBXW7 may encode an HLA-A*11:01 presented neoepitope, and warrants further investigation as a target for T cell based immunotherapy of cancer. (springer.com)
  • Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Consistent with immunosurveillance theory, the immune system is crucial to protect the host from developing tumors, and the major players in tumoral immunity are effector T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • copies
  • HEK 293 cells have a complex karyotype, exhibiting two or more copies of each chromosome and with a modal chromosome number of 64. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • however due to low plant tissue extraction yields and long growing seasons, alternative ways including metabolic engineering to produce artemisinin are being considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • How to seed cultured cells for single clone selection? (altogen.com)
  • Single clone selection is necessary when performing stable cell line production or drug resistant cells. (altogen.com)
  • The goal is to dilute cells down to a concentration such that when they are plated in a dish there is a single cell per well. (altogen.com)
  • The single cell clone is expanded by continually increasing the well size until freezer stocks can be established. (altogen.com)
  • Theoretically, by knowing the starting cell number of the suspension a scientist could simply make a single dilution down to 1 cell per well and proceed. (altogen.com)
  • Eventually, one of the wells will have a single cell. (altogen.com)
  • Keep in mind that single clone selection is difficult, so replicates of the dilution series are recommended. (altogen.com)
  • Gingival tissue-derived single CD19+ B-cells from an ACPA+RA patient with PD were sorted by flow cytometry. (ovid.com)
  • Single cells separated out required the support of other cells in order to function and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanford developed micropipettes where single cells could be picked up and isolated from under the microscope and placed in a detailed microenvironment, where diffusion of cellular products was restricted to inside a small closed culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • This process currently involves transferring a nucleus (DNA) from a donor adult cell to an egg cell that has had its nucleus (DNA) removed. (epochtimes.today)
  • We next developed a protocol utilizing pMHC multimers to isolate CD8 + T cells from healthy human donor PBMC that are specific for mCALR and additional putative neoepitopes found recurrently in hematological malignancies. (springer.com)
  • epidermis
  • Skin of healthy individual comprises of three main layers: subcutaneous tissue, underlying dermis and cellular epidermis [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • culture
  • The cloned cells were harvested, expanded in culture and transferred to three-dimensional molds. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2011 - Notable expansion of Olympus product line of tissue culture supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017 - Launches GenClone product line, a full line of cell culture media products centered around ultra-pure, high-performance fetal bovine sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5322104) GenClone, high-performance cell culture media products (Reg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olympus provides plasticware for general liquid handling and cell and tissue culture applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells are straightforward to grow in culture and to transfect. (wikipedia.org)
  • As was then the practice, no consent was obtained to culture her cells, nor were she or her family compensated for their extraction or use. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunosuppressive
  • Additionally, it has the potential to eliminate the rejection responses associated with transplantation of "non-self" tissues, and thus the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which carry the risk of serious and potentially life-threatening complications and enormous cost to the United States health care system. (innovations-report.com)
  • endangered species
  • In 2001, he was also the first to clone an endangered species (a Gaur), and in 2003, he cloned an endangered wild ox (a Banteng) from the frozen skin cells of an animal that had died at the San Diego Zoo nearly a quarter-of-a-century earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence
  • The major players of adaptive immunity are effector T cells, but the tumoral immunoevasion mechanisms appear to influence diverse steps in cancer-specific lymphocyte priming, activation, and effector function ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is involved in the initiation of V(D)J recombition during B and T cell development. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • PCR amplification of full length ORF of the target gene by reverse transcription from total RNA prepared from specified tissue or cell line. (simbiosys-biowares.com)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a protein present in cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a member of the saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) family and is released from cytotoxic T cells upon antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p120 protein displays a dramatic increase in expression at the G1/S transition suggesting that p120 regulates the cell cycle and nucleolar activity that is required for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is specifically expressed in club cells in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using very sensitive methods, LECT2 protein can also be detected at low levels in the endothelial cells of hepatic arteries and veins including central veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Yilmaz and colleagues confird that CR, through its inhibitory consequences of mTOR signaling in Pah cells adja cent to intestinal stem cells, preserves and even enriches intestinal stem cells. (xobor.com)
  • In addition, we confird that mammary tumors remarkably enriched in breast cancer stem cells have heightened sensitivity to the anti most cancers effects of CR. (xobor.com)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of RAG2 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00005897-T01 ) by RAG2 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: RAG2 transfected lysate(57.97 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cells or tissues are subjected to inflammatory, fibrotic, and other insults, they commonly reduce their expression of LECT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfection
  • MCF-7 cells had Danshensu been passaged onto coverslips in 500 l Opti-MEM (Invitrogen) 1 day before transfection and reached about 40C50% confluence during transfection. (cancercurehere.com)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA for LECT2 is highly expressed in liver tissue and expressed at far lower levels in a wide range of other tssues. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • One more rising problem is that Kendall Reyes Chargers Jersey , in addition to im pting the advancent and survival of aberrant cells, CR and mTOR inhibition may well also impt the stem mobile partnt and enrich maintenance or fix of tissues. (xobor.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Human
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)