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  • Hard Tissues
  • However, the success of biomimetics lies in fully grasping the performance and mechanics of these biological hard tissues before swapping the natural components with artificial materials for engineering design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the degree of efficiency of biological hard tissues are yet unmatched by any man-made ceramic composites, some promising new techniques to synthesize them are currently under development. (wikipedia.org)
  • dense irregu
  • Dense irregular connective tissue provides strength in multiple directions by its dense bundles of fibers arranged in all directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loose and dense irregular connective tissue, formed mainly by fibroblasts and collagen fibers, have an important role in providing a medium for oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from capillaries to cells, and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • loose conne
  • Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypodermis consists primarily of loose connective tissue and lobules of fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • The Eugene Bell Center for Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering was established in 2010 through the extraordinary leadership gifts of Millicent Bell and John and Valerie Rowe. (mbl.edu)
  • Tissue may refer to: Tissue (biology), a tissue is an ensemble of similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function Tissue paper, a type of thin, translucent paper used for wrapping and cushioning items Facial tissue, a type of thin, soft, disposable paper used for nose-blowing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The continued success of tissue engineering, and the eventual development of true human replacement parts, will grow from the convergence of engineering and basic research advances in tissue, matrix, growth factor, stem cell, and developmental biology, as well as materials science and bio informatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Haberlandt's original assertions, methods for tissue and cell culture have been realized, leading to significant discoveries in biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture is an important tool for the study of the biology of cells from multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Xylem Phloem Cork cambium Vascular cambium Vascular plant Stele (biology) Circulatory system Intro to Plant Structure Contains diagrams of the plant tissues, listed as an outline. (wikipedia.org)
  • gTissue is a type of living Tissue (biology), hence an ensemble of cells and extracellular matrix that carry out a particular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this stage the material has been adopted and has the characteristics of a living tissue (biology). (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • There are three different types of muscle tissue: smooth, cardiac, and skeletal. (angelfire.com)
  • Cardiac muscle tissue is found in the walls of the heart. (angelfire.com)
  • The smooth and cardiac muscle tissue are involuntary, which means they are not controlled by conscious thought, they work automatically. (angelfire.com)
  • Human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and, more recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate into human cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest in these bioengineered cardiac tissues has risen due to their potential use in cardiovascular research and clinical therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tissues provide a unique in vitro model to study cardiac physiology with a species-specific advantage over cultured animal cells in experimental studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, there is a third muscle tissue recognized: Cardiac muscle (myocardium), found only in the heart, is a striated muscle similar in structure to skeletal muscle but not subject to voluntary control. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, aerobic exercise can produce beneficial cardiac tissue remodeling in those suffering from left ventricular hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • If cancer cells are found in or near the edges of the tissue removed (called positive or close margins), it can mean that some cancer was left behind. (cancer.org)
  • Tissues are groups of similar cells that do the same thing in the body. (angelfire.com)
  • A new breakthrough a cell in adults that can turn into every single tissue in the body has been discovered.Until now, it was thought that only embryonic stem cells could do this. (medindia.net)
  • Nervous tissue is made up of different types of nerve cells, all of which have an axon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous tissue is composed of neurons , also called nerve cells, and neuroglial cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroglia encompasses the non-neural cells in nervous tissue that provide various crucial supportive functions for neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • All connective tissue consists of three main components: fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers), ground substance and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types of fibers: Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, reticular fibers made by reticular cells provide the stroma-or structural support-for the parenchyma-or functional part-of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are joined together in tissues that may be either striated or smooth, depending on the presence or absence, respectively, of organized, regularly repeated arrangements of myofibrillar contractile proteins called myofilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma forms the "filler" tissue in the soft parts of plants.usually present in cortex, pericycle, pith,and medullary rays in primary stem and root.2) Collenchyma cells have thin primary walls with some areas of secondary thickening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue specialised for food storage is commonly formed of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some works the cells of the leaf epidermis are regarded as specialised parenchymal cells, but the modern preference has long been to classify the epidermis as plant dermal tissue, and parenchyma as ground tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • shapes of parenchyma 1= polyhedral[these cells are most poly hedral shape] 2=stellate (found in stem of plants and have well developed air spaces between them) 3=elongated(are found in pallisade tissue of leaf) 4=lobed (are found inspongy and pallisade mesophyyll tissue of some plants) The first use of "collenchyma" (/kəˈlɛŋkɪmə, kɒ-/) was by Link (1837) who used it to describe the sticky substance on Bletia (Orchidaceae) pollen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collenchyma tissue is composed of elongated cells with irregularly thickened walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four main types of collenchyma: Angular collenchyma (thickened at intercellular contact points) Tangential collenchyma (cells arranged into ordered rows and thickened at the tangential face of the cell wall) Annular collenchyma (uniformly thickened cell walls) Lacunar collenchyma (collenchyma with intercellular spaces) Collenchyma cells are most often found adjacent to outer growing tissues such as the vascular cambium and are known for increasing structural support and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved in regenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells or progenitor cells to produce tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific advances in biomaterials, stem cells, growth and differentiation factors, and biomimetic environments have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in the laboratory from combinations of engineered extracellular matrices ("scaffolds"), cells, and biologically active molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin cells embedded in a hydrogel, such as in the case of bioprinted constructs for battlefield burn repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, with the more specific term plant tissue culture being used for plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suggested that the potentialities of individual cells via tissue culture as well as that the reciprocal influences of tissues on one another could be determined by this method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In modern usage, tissue culture generally refers to the growth of cells from a tissue from a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal tissue culture, cells may be grown as two-dimensional monolayers (conventional culture) or within fibrous scaffolds or gels to attain more naturalistic three-dimensional tissue-like structures (3D culture). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was noted that as opposed to the flattened morphology typically seen in 2D culture, cells grown on the electrospun fibers exhibited a more rounded 3-dimensional morphology generally observed of tissues in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells in vascular tissue are typically long and slender. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tissue divides off cells that will become additional xylem and phloem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some bacteria and viruses have a broad tissue tropism and can infect many types of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the origin of the cells comprising a particular tissue type may differ developmentally for different classifications of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous (or neural) tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epithelial tissues are formed by cells that cover the organ surfaces such as the surface of skin, the airways, the reproductive tract, and the inner lining of the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • Human soft tissue is highly deformable, and its mechanical properties vary significantly from one person to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to describe the mechanical response of soft tissues, several methods have been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the independence of strain rate, preconditioned soft tissues still present hysteresis, so the mechanical response can be modeled as hyperelastic with different material constants at loading and unloading. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tissues have been finely tuned to enhance their mechanical capabilities over millions of years of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many mechanical and imaging techniques such as nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, the tissues involved require certain mechanical and structural properties for proper functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • A tissue bank is an establishment that collects and recovers human cadaver tissue for the purposes of medical research, education, and allograft transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the major challenges now facing tissue engineering is the need for more complex functionality, as well as both functional and biomechanical stability and vascularization in laboratory-grown tissues destined for transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue (paper handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and household towels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is commonly used to refer to the type of facial tissue, usually sold in boxes, that is designed to facilitate the expulsion of nasal mucus although it may refer to other types of facial tissues including napkins and wipes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • however, the distribution and organization of many of these structures is characteristic of neonatal heart tissue rather than adult human heart muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ
  • From the control of cellular energetics to the processes of organ development and spinal cord regeneration these transformative discoveries are allowing new insights into the basic mechanisms of tissue growth, repair and regeneration in all metazoans and will permit novel approaches to the understanding, treatment and prevention of human disease. (mbl.edu)
  • Plant tissue culture in particular is concerned with the growing of entire plants from small pieces of plant tissue, cultured in medium Cell culture Organ culture Plant tissue culture Carrel, Alexis and Montrose T. Burrows (1911). (wikipedia.org)
  • hence, this tissue provides a barrier between the external environment and the organ it covers. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Not all mineralized tissues develop through normal physiologic processes and are beneficial to the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all animals can generally be considered to contain the four tissue types, the manifestation of these tissues can differ depending on the type of organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • A tissue bank may also refer to a location where biomedical tissue is stored under cryogenic conditions, and is generally used in a more clinical sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has since been successfully created in humans for a wide range of clinical applications in soft tissue healing and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • It serves functions of protection, secretion, and absorption, and is separated from other tissues below by a basal lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • stiffness
  • At small strains , elastin confers stiffness to the tissue and stores most of the strain energy . (wikipedia.org)
  • When taut, these fibers produce a strong growth in tissue stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impact testing results showed that the stiffness and the damping resistance of a test subject's tissue are correlated with the mass, velocity, and size of the striking object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mineralized tissues combine stiffness, low weight, strength and toughness due to the presence of minerals (the inorganic part) in soft protein networks and tissues (the organic part). (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • There are four main types of tissue: epithelial, muscle, connective and nerve. (angelfire.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tissue forms the muscles which are attached to the bones, these muscles are voluntary, which means they can be controlled with conscious thought, and they help us to walk, run, or move our body in some other way. (angelfire.com)
  • A contusion is the discoloration of the skin, which results from underlying muscle fibers and connective tissue being crushed.This can happen in a variety of ways such as a direct blow to the skin, or a fall taken against a hard surface.The discoloration in the skin is present when blood begins to pool around the injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle tissue varies with function and location in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-categorization of muscle tissue is also possible, depending on among other things the content of myoglobin, mitochondria, myosin ATPase etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscle is further divided into several subtypes: Type I, slow oxidative, slow twitch, or "red" muscle is dense with capillaries and is rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle tissue its characteristic red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro meat: Edible artificial animal muscle tissue cultured in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Typically these tissues form a protective shield or structural support. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remarkable structural organization and engineering properties makes these tissues desirable candidates for duplication by artificial means. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The use of hECTs in generating tissue engineered heart valves is also being explored to improve current heart valve constructs in in vivo animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As tissue engineering technology advances to overcome current limitations, hECTs are a promising avenue for experimental drug discovery, screening and disease modelling and in vivo repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Factors influencing viral tissue tropism include: The presence of cellular receptors permitting viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • Tissue engineering involves the use of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the first use of regenerative tissue was used to replace a small length of urethra, which led to the understanding that the technique of obtaining samples of tissue, growing it outside the body without a scaffold, and reapplying it, can be used for only small distances of less than 1 cm. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In addition to the membrane-bound tissue factor, soluble form of tissue factor was also found which results from alternatively spliced tissue factor mRNA transcripts, in which exon 5 is absent and exon 4 is spliced directly to exon 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), the tissue types found are grey matter and white matter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another tissue study found inconsistent results with different paper, but said that tissue paper generally demonstrated an undesirable effect known as "comb filtering", where the high frequencies are reflected back into the tweeter instead of being absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • This early use of electrospun fibrous lattices for cell culture and tissue engineering showed that various cell types would adhere to and proliferate upon polycarbonate fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • soft
  • The only way to cure a soft tissue sarcoma is to remove it with surgery, so surgery is part of the treatment for all soft tissue sarcomas whenever possible. (cancer.org)
  • Stage I soft tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors of any size. (cancer.org)
  • subjects with more soft tissue thickness tended to absorb the impacts with less aversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graph of lagrangian stress (T) versus stretch ratio (λ) of a preconditioned soft tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soft tissues have the potential to undergo large deformations and still return to the initial configuration when unloaded, i.e. they are hyperelastic materials , and their stress-strain curve is nonlinear . (wikipedia.org)
  • The soft tissues are also viscoelastic , incompressible and usually anisotropic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though soft tissues have viscoelastic properties, i.e. stress as function of strain rate, it can be approximated by a hyperelastic model after precondition to a load pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The soft tissue is completely torn, and functionality and strength on the joint is completely compromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RICE method is an effective procedure used in the initial treatment of a soft tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Greek παρέγχυμα parenkhyma, "visceral flesh" from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein, "to pour in" from παρα- para-, "beside", ἐν en-, "in" and χεῖν khein, "to pour") is a versatile ground tissue that generally constitutes the "filler" tissue in soft parts of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facial tissue (paper handkerchiefs) refers to a class of soft, absorbent, disposable paper that is suitable for use on the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • It is often mechanically strengthened, for example, in pine leaves, forming an extra protective layer or a water storage tissue. (wikipedia.org)