Loading...
  • fibers
  • This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors alone and in combination with NaV1.8 sodium-channels in human muscles and to compare it between healthy pain-free men and women, the pain-free masseter and tibialis anterior muscles, and patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain-free controls. (uib.no)
  • Results: A similar percentage of nerve fibers in the healthy masseter (85.2%) and tibialis (88.7%) muscles expressed 5-HT3A-receptors. (uib.no)
  • 001). In the patients, significantly more fibers per section were found with an average of 3.8 ± 3 fibers per section in the masseter muscle compared to 2.7 ± 0.2 in the healthy controls (P = .024). (uib.no)
  • Conclusions: This study showed that the 5-HT3A-receptor is highly expressed in human masseter and tibialis muscles and that there are more nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors in the masseter of women with myofascial TMD compared to healthy women. (uib.no)
  • Additional afferent fibers monitor other characteristics of the muscle environment, including metabolite buildup, temperature, and nociceptive stimuli. (jove.com)
  • Black arrowheads point to preserved small unmyelinated sensory fibers (Remak bundles) in Phr1 aKO nerves. (nih.gov)
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • fusimotor n's those that innervate the intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dominy and J. Order of nerve blockadeввsmall-diameter fibers large diameter. (simonejaehner.de)
  • Effects of carnosine on contractile apparatus Ca²⁺ sensitivity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ release in human skeletal muscle fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus increasing muscle carnosine content likely confers benefits to muscle performance in both fiber types by increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus and possibly also by aiding Ca(2+) release in type I fibers, helping to lessen or slow the decline in muscle performance during fatiguing stimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Morphological examination of Tfam-SCKO nerves revealed early preferential loss of small unmyelinated fibers followed by prominent demyelination and degeneration of larger-caliber axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the second experiment, after a 3-month period of TIB nerve regeneration, significantly more TIB motoneurons regenerated their axons into "protected" than "unprotected" CP distal nerve stumps within 3 months (mean 332 ± 43.6 vs 235 ± 39.3 motoneurons) with corresponding and significantly higher numbers of regenerated nerve fibers, resulting in significantly better recovery of reinnervated TA muscle weight. (thejns.org)
  • These experiments in rats demonstrated that delayed nerve repair is more effective when the deleterious effects of chronic denervation of the distal nerve stump are reduced by protecting the nerve stump with ingrowing nerve fibers across an end-to-side insertion of the distal nerve stump into a neighboring intact nerve. (thejns.org)
  • Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) can occur secondary to exertion because chronic muscle activity causes muscle hypertrophy and transiently can swell muscle fibers up to 20 times their resting size, thus causing increased pressure in noncompliant compartments. (radsource.us)
  • As one of the two major branches off the sciatic nerve, it receives fibers from the posterior divisions of L4 through S2. (statpearls.com)
  • In addition to carrying motor fibers, the common fibular nerve carries afferent cutaneous sensory fibers from the lower extremity that ultimately travel proximally to the spinal cord. (statpearls.com)
  • Specifically, the superficial fibular nerve carries sensory fibers from the anterolateral aspect of the lower extremity that extends from midway down the leg to the majority of the dorsal aspect of the foot and toes. (statpearls.com)
  • The deep fibular nerve carries sensory fibers from between the first and second toes. (statpearls.com)
  • axonal
  • Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. (hindawi.com)
  • The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. (ebscohost.com)
  • While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. (jneurosci.org)
  • With the goal of understanding whether SC mitochondrial abnormalities affect axonal survival and contribute to the decline of patients suffering from peripheral nerve diseases, we generated mice with impaired mitochondrial function exclusively in SCs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that mitochondrial function in SCs is essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function. (jneurosci.org)
  • skeletal
  • This protocol describes appropriate methods to prepare skeletal muscle tissue for a broad range of phenotyping studies. (jove.com)
  • Fast-twitch Skeletal Muscles of Dystrophic Mouse Pups Are Resistant to Injury from Acute Mechanical Stress American Journal of Physiology. (jove.com)
  • somatic n's the sensory and motor nerves supplying skeletal muscle and somatic tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • OBJECTIVE TBC1D1 is a member of the TBC1 Rab-GTPase family of proteins and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether TBC1D1 regulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The R125W mutation of TBC1D1 impairs skeletal muscle glucose transport, which could be a mechanism for the obesity associated with this mutation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin and exercise are the most physiologically relevant stimulators of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and in patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin- but not exercise-stimulated glucose transport can be severely impaired ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent studies have identified two molecules, the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160/TBC1D4) and its paralog, TBC1D1, as potential molecular links among multiple signaling pathways converging on GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle ( 5 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin, exercise, and the AMPK activator 5′-aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-β- d -ribofuranoside (AICAR) all cause phosphorylation of AS160 on PAS sites in skeletal muscle ( 5 , 7 , 10 ), and there is good evidence that phosphorylation of these sites inhibits AS160 activity, leading to trafficking of GLUT4 vesicles to the cell surface and glucose transport ( 8 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that there may be one or more additional Rab-GAP proteins expressed in skeletal muscle that also function to regulate glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pellet implantation is a skeletal muscle does not apply. (bvbdallas.org)
  • There is considerable interest in potential ergogenic and therapeutic effects of increasing skeletal muscle carnosine content, although its effects on excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in human muscle have not been defined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout causes impaired muscle glucose uptake and metabolism, supporting a major role of the muscle clock in anticipating the sleep-to-wake transition, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for the skeletal muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we briefly review the regulation of circadian rhythms in the skeletal muscle, focusing on the role of the intrinsic muscle clock and critically considering the effects of different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • denervation
  • Disuse or immobilization of muscles caused by application of plaster casts, pain, restriction in bed or denervation is a common feature of most conditions associated with resistance to NDMRs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • a ) Presynaptic motoneuron terminals (anti-synaptophysin and anti-neurofilament M, green) and postsynaptic endplates (bungarotoxin, red) from the tibialis anterioris muscle remain apposed in Phr1 aKO mice three days after sciatic nerve trasection, whereas complete denervation is observed in WT samples, as quantified in ( b ). (nih.gov)
  • Muscle histopathology disclosed chronic denervation and myopathic changes and in vitro electrophysiology demonstrated both presynaptic and postsynaptic defects in neuromuscular transmission. (bmj.com)
  • Tfam-SCKOs were viable, but as they aged, they developed a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by nerve conduction abnormalities as well as extensive muscle denervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • An alternate strategy tested in this study is to perform an end-to-side neurorrhaphy to "babysit" (protect) the denervated distal nerve stump at the time of nerve repair and reduce the deleterious effect of chronic denervation on nerve regeneration. (thejns.org)
  • Such an end-to-side neurorrhaphy may be invaluable as a means of preventing the atrophy of distal nerve stumps and target organs after chronic denervation, which allows for effective reinnervation of the protected distal nerve stumps and target organs over distance and time. (thejns.org)
  • In rats in experimental groups 1 and 2, the distal CP nerve stump was protected from chronic denervation by inserting the stump end-to-side into the TIB nerve through a perineurial window, i.e., a CP-TIB end-to-side neurorrhaphy. (thejns.org)
  • cutaneous nerves
  • The data are discussed in terms of a new hypothesis, which states that the responses to electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves during locomotion do not correspond directly to corrections for stumbling following mechanical perturbations during the step cycle. (springer.com)
  • lower limb
  • Trunkopetal muscles of the lower limb: greater psoas m., quadratus lumborum m. (scribd.com)
  • More commonly associated with nerves of the upper limb, there are few reports of intraneural lipomas associated with nerves of the lower limb. (scielo.org.za)
  • The influence of spinal reflex arcs on lower limb movement cannot be understated, but the individual contribution of various parts of the reflex pathway, namely the primary motor cortex, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve, are incompletely known. (bu.edu)
  • sural nerve
  • To investigate whether phase-dependent reversals in reflex responses on electromyography (EMG) are accompanied by movement reversals, a series of human volunteers were studied for their behavioural responses to sural nerve stimulation during running or walking on a treadmill. (springer.com)
  • 2.5 x perception threshold, T) of the sural nerve yielded facilitatory responses in the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), correlated with an induced ankle dorsiflexion (mean maximum 4°) in early swing. (springer.com)
  • Histopathologic evaluation of 2 diagnostic biopsy specimens from the anterior tibialis muscle (during which the surgeon [patient was injured) and another biopsy taken from the sural nerve revealed no signs of a specific infection. (annals.org)
  • These findings were also confirmed in isolated human sural nerve segments. (labome.org)
  • of ipsilateral cutaneous reflexes were studied with short trains of stimuli presented pseudorandomly to the sural nerve during human walking. (labome.org)
  • anatomy
  • As in most parts of the human anatomy, the course and surrounding anatomy of the common fibular nerve has several variants that should be noted, especially for surgeons who may have to decompress the nerve. (statpearls.com)
  • In a study comparing the anatomy in cadavers and the anatomy in surgically decompressed nerves, there were found to be a few major variants. (statpearls.com)
  • Schwann
  • To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. (hindawi.com)
  • A Combination of Schwann-Cell Grafts and Aerobic Exercise Enhances Sciatic Nerve Regeneration. (ebscohost.com)
  • histology
  • For paraffin histology, muscles (e.g. the tibialis anterior, TA) are removed from the mouse and immediately placed into 4% paraformaldehyde for fixation. (xlx.pl)
  • We compared different surgical techniques for nerve regeneration in a rabbit sciatic nerve gap model using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), electrophysiology, limb function, and histology. (springer.com)
  • distal
  • a ) Toluidine-blue stained cross-sections of axotomized sciatic nerve distal to the cut site, showing delayed axon degeneration in Phr1 aKO compared to littermate controls (WT). (nih.gov)
  • In the second experiment, the intact TIB nerve was transected and cross-sutured to a 3-month chronically denervated distal CP nerve stump that had either been "protected" by ingrown TIB nerves after CP-TIB neurorrhaphy or remained chronically denervated. (thejns.org)
  • In rats in the control group, the CP nerve stumps were each ligated and then sutured to innervated biceps femoris muscle (not shown) to prevent CP nerve regeneration into the unprotected CP distal nerve stump. (thejns.org)
  • sensory
  • Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. (jove.com)
  • Loss of Phr1 results in prolonged survival of severed axons in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, as well as preservation of motor and sensory nerve terminals. (nih.gov)
  • Traumatic peripheral nerve injury is a potentially devastating ailment resulting in severe sensory and/or motor deficits. (springer.com)
  • rats
  • Methods: Wild-type and nude-type (T-cell-deficient) rats underwent crush injury of the sciatic nerve. (ebscohost.com)
  • In the first surgery, the CP nerve was transected in the right hindlimb in two groups of rats, the control group and experimental groups 1 and 2. (thejns.org)