• However, one paper on marine sediments for plutonium in marine sediments, atomic bomb fallout is responsible for 66% of the 239Pu and 59% 240Pu found in the English Channel, while nuclear reprocessing is responsible for the majority of the 238Pu and 241Pu present in the Earth's oceans (nuclear weapons testing is only responsible for 6.5 and 16.5% of these isotopes respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Richland, Washington was the first city established to support plutonium production at the nearby Hanford nuclear site, to power the American nuclear weapons arsenals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozersk, Russia supported plutonium production to power the Soviet nuclear arsenals at the Mayak nuclear plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2013 book on a history of these two blighted cities, Plutopia: Nuclear Families, Atomic Cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters (Oxford), Kate Brown explores the health of affected citizens in both the United States and Russia, and the "slow-motion disasters" that still threaten the environments where the plants are located. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even today, as pollution threats to health and the environment persist, the government keeps knowledge about the associated risks from the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall the health effects of fission products are far greater than the effects of the actinides released by a nuclear bomb detonation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. (hhrjournal.org)
  • The test, dubbed "Divine Strake," was sponsored by the Pentagon's Defense Threat Reduction Agency and had been slated to be held in June at the Energy Department's Nevada Test Site in Nye County, about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. (redorbit.com)
  • Most of the dose from fallout is due to external exposure to gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground, and this is the only exposure pathway considered by the computer models that the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) used to estimate health effects for this study. (nap.edu)
  • Pyongyang has been ramping up its threats to the U.S. and other countries in the wake of new sanctions imposed by the United Nations. (newsweek.com)
  • Pyongyang looks at states like Iraq -- where former dictator Saddam Hussein was overthrown by the United States, and Libya -- the country's late leader, Moammar Gaddafi, gave up his nuclear ambitions for sanctions relief and aid, only to be toppled and killed after the US intervened in the country's civil unrest -- and believes that only being able to threaten the US homeland with a retaliatory nuclear strike can stop American military intervention. (cnn.com)
  • The current crisis erupted when Pyongyang admitted it had a separate program to develop a nuclear bomb based on uranium. (csmonitor.com)
  • Senior United States defense officials, serving and retired, are quietly expressing their concern that while the recent focus on the North Korean missile and nuclear weapons programs is warranted, Pyongyang has other military capabilities, mostly forgotten in the current debate, that could kill millions of people. (atimes.com)
  • Seoul frets over further missile tests by Pyongyang this year in threat to U.S. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Al-Jubeir also praised Trump's decision to abandon the Iran nuclear deal and seek to reimpose sanctions on firms and business engaging in legitimate commerce with Iran. (armscontrol.org)
  • Asked what his country will do if Iran restarts its nuclear program, he told CNN's Wolf Blitzer that "we will do whatever it takes to protect our people. (armscontrol.org)
  • We have made it very clear that if Iran acquires a nuclear capability, we will do everything we can to do the same. (armscontrol.org)
  • This follows similar comments by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in a March 15 interview with CBS News that Saudi Arabia will quickly follow suit if Iran acquires nuclear weapons. (armscontrol.org)
  • Right now, I don't know that we have a specific policy announcement on that front, but I can tell you that we are very committed to making sure that Iran does not have nuclear weapons," she stated. (armscontrol.org)
  • It is bad enough that the Trump administration, by violating the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, has threatened the NPT regime by opening the door for Iran to expand its nuclear capacity. (armscontrol.org)
  • It is bad enough that the Trump administration has violated the Iran nuclear deal and threatened the NPT regime by opening the door for expanded Iranian nuclear capacity. (armscontrol.org)
  • Iran has announced its intention to expand its ability to enrich uranium rapidly by installing advanced centrifuges at the Natanz Fuel En. (criticalthreats.org)
  • Iran can produce one bomb's worth of fissile material faster than it likely can deploy a functioning nuclear device. (criticalthreats.org)
  • Iran is at the threshold of a nuclear weapons capability. (criticalthreats.org)
  • The world would be a more dangerous place with nuclear weapons in Iran. (issues.org)
  • There is no evidence that Iran currently possesses any nuclear devices or even enough fissile material (highly enriched uranium or plutonium) to produce such weapons. (issues.org)
  • But for the past two decades Iran has been engaged in a secret, multifaceted program to assemble the equipment and facilities necessary to make these nuclear materials. (issues.org)
  • However, after three years of intensive investigations, the IAEA reported in September 2005 and reaffirmed in February 2006 that it is "still not in a position to conclude that there are no undeclared nuclear materials or activities in Iran. (issues.org)
  • Iran maintains that all its nuclear activities, even those previously hidden from the IAEA, are intended for peaceful purposes, and it has agreed to place all its nuclear activities under IAEA safeguards. (issues.org)
  • The danger is not that Iran would build and use a nuclear weapon against the United States or its allies. (issues.org)
  • The danger is that a nuclear-armed Iran would lead other states in the Gulf and Middle East, including possibly Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and even Turkey, to reexamine their nuclear options. (issues.org)
  • If the international community is unable or unwilling to impose penalties on Iran, and if Tehran continues its nuclear development unconstrained, the nuclear chain reaction from the region could ripple around the globe. (issues.org)
  • Pakistan received generous support from China for its nuclear programme and, in its pursuit of nuclear power status, it also had financial support from Saudi Arabia and Libya and, eventually, it shared nuclear data and expertise with Iran, Libya and Iraq. (tribuneindia.com)
  • How Long until Iran Builds a Nuclear Weapon? (jcpa.org)
  • Since World War II, strikes to halt nuclear activities have taken place exclusively in the Middle East: Iraq was struck by Iran (1980), Israel (1981) and the US (1991, 2003), while Iraq bombed Iran (1984 to 1987) and Israel (1991). (taipeitimes.com)
  • The Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee held a hearing Tuesday to review the impact of sanctions the United States and our allies have put on Iran for its continued nuclear program. (votesmart.org)
  • do you see the cost of oil, do you not see a nuclear iran as a bad thing? (cnn.com)
  • Elleman says while there has been no evidence since 2003 of Iran developing a nuclear weapons program, "Iran certainly is making tremendous headway in developing a range of ballistic missiles that could threaten the cities throughout the Gulf and in Israel. (cfr.org)
  • Iran has been making similar types of threats for some time. (cfr.org)
  • Since 2003, I don't know that there has been any evidence, at least in the public domain, of Iran taking measures to make a nuclear weapon. (cfr.org)
  • In 2002, an Iranian opposition group revealed that the country's nuclear program was much more extensive than Tehran had previously declared to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (issues.org)
  • A veteran North Korean official who was sanctioned for his suspected role in development of the country's nuclear and missile technology has died, the North announced Tuesday. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Pentagon's plan for a massive detonation of conventional high explosives in Nevada to test the effectiveness of weapons against deeply buried targets has been postponed indefinitely, officials said on Thursday. (redorbit.com)
  • The National Nuclear Security Administration, part of the Energy Department, said it was withdrawing its finding that the planned detonation of 700 tonnes of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil in the Nevada desert would cause "no significant" environmental impact, the agency said. (redorbit.com)
  • When a nuclear detonation occurs close to the ground surface, soil mixes with the highly radioactive fission products from the weapon. (nap.edu)
  • 'Nuclear Explosives' - Another section, entitled "Nuclear Explosives," says that Pakistan is working on an "electronic triggering circuit for nuclear device detonation… as well as experiments on conventional as well as shaped charges. (historycommons.org)
  • accidents are one thing - detonation with nuclear yield is another entirely. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • One scenario for an "accidental detonation" would be if a weapon is struck by incoming - perhaps delivered by aircraft - at the onset of hostilities. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • Unable to deny that two of its bombs had fallen from the sky-one in a swampy meadow, the other in a field near Faro, North Carolina-the Air Force insisted that there had never been any danger of a nuclear detonation. (motherjones.com)
  • A limited nuclear weapons exchange between Pakistan and India using their current arsenals could create a near-global ozone hole, triggering human health problems and wreaking environmental havoc for at least a decade, according to a study led by the University of Colorado at Boulder. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Richland, Washington was the first city established to support plutonium production at the nearby Hanford nuclear site, to power the American nuclear weapons arsenals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A September 2017 Gallup poll found 60 percent of South Koreans support nuclear armament, while only 35 percent are opposed. (thebulletin.org)
  • WASHINGTON (August 24, 2017)-Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Rick Perry released a study late yesterday reaffirming what energy experts, including those at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), have been saying for years-low natural gas prices are the main reason for recent coal and nuclear power plant retirements. (ucsusa.org)
  • In February 2015 Francois Hollande called for other countries to follow the example of France by stopping the production of fissile materials and nuclear tests, which have been replaced by simulation tools. (globalsecurity.org)
  • U.S. officials have said recently that Pakistan has the fastest-growing nuclear weapons program in the world -- at least in terms of installing additional capacity to produce nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. (rferl.org)
  • Now, a Washington-based think tank says it has obtained satellite imagery showing how Pakistan has concentrated in recent years on greatly expanding its nuclear-weapons-production complex. (rferl.org)
  • And so we think the focus of Pakistan will be not just on increasing the number of its weapons, but increasing their lethality and the destructive power of those weapons. (rferl.org)
  • In fact, Kile says, Pakistan has been developing its systems for delivering a nuclear warhead at the same time that it has been expanding its nuclear facilities. (rferl.org)
  • The book, "Imagining Industan," appeals to the three nuclear armed powers sharing the Indus River basin -- India, Pakistan and China -- and Afghanistan to cease decades of conflict and self-serving policies and begin working together as never before to manage the precious resource. (oneworld.org)
  • Highlighting the nuclear factor by Pakistan displays its immaturity and desperation to attract global attention towards Kashmir. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Pakistan has used the nuclear card in the past spasmodically. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Pakistan started to think about nuclear weapons seriously after its defeat in the 1971 war. (tribuneindia.com)
  • This was the threat that the Pakistan military created and treated as 'indispensable' in order to sustain its dominance in the social, political and economic dynamics of the democratically weak state. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Pakistan, till today, does not have an officially announced written nuclear doctrine and there is an unofficial code adopted by the Pakistani leadership, based on Indo-centricity, credible minimum deterrence (now full spectrum deterrence), strategic restraint and first use. (tribuneindia.com)
  • 3. Pakistan has frequently used its nuclear assets as an instrument of blackmailing. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Policy-makers in Pakistan seem to be convinced that they will be able to carry on, or rather accelerate, their activities in Kashmir under the broader threat of using nuclear weapons, if required, and this would constrain India's strategic moves. (tribuneindia.com)
  • A limited nuclear weapons exchange between Pakistan and India using th. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It contains events related to the event September 1996: China Sells Pakistan Furnace for Nuclear Weapons Program, US Takes No Action . (historycommons.org)
  • The Geneva agreement represents an effort on the part of the Obama administration to try and manage the Iranian nuclear weapons program r. (criticalthreats.org)
  • The Iranian regime's refusal to provide the IAEA access to certain nuclear-related facilities and personnel is one element of a broader d. (criticalthreats.org)
  • This potentially explosive domestic political dynamic greatly complicates efforts to convince Iranian officials to end the pursuit of these sensitive nuclear programs. (issues.org)
  • The additional deployments are part of an effort by Gen. James Mattis, head of the U.S. Central Command, to beef up the American military presence in the region in the face of Iranian threats to shut down the Strait of Hormuz. (cnn.com)
  • The implosion and priming of the chain reaction ignites the nuclear fusion reaction of the DT mixture (whose contribution to the yield is negligible), generating a strong flux of neutrons which, from the inside, enhances and exhausts the fission of plutonium before the warhead disassembles. (europeforpeace.eu)
  • In remarks published by the Korean Central News Agency, a state mouthpiece, an unnamed spokesman said Trump's repeated threats only makes the reclusive country more likely to retaliate against the U.S. (newsweek.com)
  • He didn't address Trump's threats to unleash "fire and fury. (cnn.com)
  • The White House on Wednesday defended Donald Trump's tweet about the size of his nuclear button, saying Americans should be concerned about the North Korean leader's mental fitness, not their president's. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The nation's nuclear program is scattered across the country (see map), and may include covert facilities in hard-to-hit caves. (csmonitor.com)
  • Nuclear threat has been used in the past rather frequently to deal with any crisis. (tribuneindia.com)
  • The dangers associated with transit multiply with the number of vehicles carrying weapons in transit, which can spike during a crisis. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • Accidents involving nuclear weapons are most likely to occur in states that have a rising learning curve and a high tempo of nuclear operations, whether due to a crisis or to paranoia. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • If a nuclear weapon-related accident occurs in the absence of a crisis or hostilities, accidental war might possibly be averted depending, at a minimum, on where the accident occurs and whether accurate, credible information can be released quickly about the circumstances surrounding this event. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • If, however, the nuclear accident occurs during a crisis or during the onset of military operations, escalation control could be more difficult, regardless of where the accident occurs. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • Does this posting state that some risk exists that a 'broken arrow' style event occurring at the time of a crisis could presage an accidental war leading to nuclear escalation? (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • Many pundits in academic and security policy circles as well as high ranking officials in government still fret about the feasibility of pursuing an independent nuclear deterrent. (thebulletin.org)
  • These weapons, under the right conditions, would inflict severe damage should hostilities resume on the Korean Peninsula, defense officials say. (atimes.com)
  • Federal officials and medical experts are preparing for the unthinkable, a nuclear terrorist attack. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Federal officials are worried enough to have convened a National Academy of Sciences committee on medical preparedness for a nuclear attack by terrorists. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • So I've told people that if you're interested in avoiding World War III, it seems like you ought to be interested in preventing them from have the knowledge necessary to make a nuclear weapon. (globalresearch.ca)
  • 17 September 2009 ICAN i media release following the tabling of the report of the Joint Standing Committe on Treaties, on Australia's nuclear treaties. (mapw.org.au)
  • MAPW's National Council, which met on the weekend of 29-30 August 2009, was addressed by the Member for Wills, Kelvin Thomson M. Mr Thomson chairs the Australian Parliament's significant Joint Standing Committee on Treaties (JSCOT), which is expected to report later this month on its broad-ranging inquiry into Australia's nuclear treaties. (mapw.org.au)
  • Kelvin Thomson MP chairs the Australian Parliament's Joint Standing Committee on Treaties (JSCOT), which is currently undertaking an broad-ranging inquiry into Australia's nuclear treaties. (mapw.org.au)
  • Never has the threat of antimicrobial resistance been more immediate and the need for solutions more urgent," says Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO. (hstoday.us)
  • New treatments alone will not be sufficient to combat the threat of antimicrobial resistance. (hstoday.us)
  • A stream of particles or electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms and molecules of a radioactive substance as a result of nuclear decay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Radiation is given off by nuclear reactions (as in fission) and by radioactive decay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Radiologic threat agents are radioactive materials released that have adverse health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • So, given the threat of radioactive releases, does the plant's continued operation outweigh the risks? (taipeitimes.com)
  • Potassium iodide blocks thyroid absorption of radioactive iodine, an early risk in a nuclear release. (taipeitimes.com)
  • And, depending on weather and the nuclear discharge, the radioactive consequences may not remain localized. (taipeitimes.com)
  • In 1982 he cofounded and became president of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation ( www.wagingpeace.org ), where he has remained for thirty years, working for a world free of nuclear weapons. (thesunmagazine.org)
  • For example, in an October 1960 appearance on NBC's Meet the Press , the Democratic nominee said, "The Soviet Union made the great breakthrough in space and in missiles, and, therefore, they are going to be ahead of us in those very decisive weapons of war in the early 1960s. (armscontrol.org)
  • An understanding of the consequences of nuclear war largely contributed to avoiding the outbreak of war between the US and the Soviet Union. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The U.S. nuclear power industry, already hobbled, a shell of its former promise, now must assess reactions to the nuclear power plant accident in the Soviet Union. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Absent the Soviet threat, it's easy to forget that these ungodly devices are still all around us. (motherjones.com)
  • The least accident-prone nuclear weapons are the ones that are not in motion - but not always: see Eric Schlosser's account of the Damascus incident in Command and Control . (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • At the time it was seen as an effective weapon because the Germans didn't have antibiotics (only the Allies had this then-new medication that cured Anthrax infections). (strategypage.com)
  • The search for really new kinds of nuclear weapons, based on new processes, proceeds since decades, but one may suspect that is has been intensified in the last decade, besides other dangerous military projects (e.g. techniques for the simulation of nuclear tests), and the willingness to sign a comprehensive test ban could raise the suspicion that it could really be affording some results. (europeforpeace.eu)
  • Controlled nuclear fusion is a field that was developed since the beginning of the nuclear era, with the (unfulfilled) promise of producing cheap energy: but, at least inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by lasers or accelerated particles beams always had military purposes. (europeforpeace.eu)
  • Kim Jong Un may be threatening the United States with nuclear weapons in a desperate bid to show North Korea's military he is a worthy successor to his father, the global forecasting and intelligence website LIGNET says. (newsmax.com)
  • To some extent, American aid also prevented France from turning towards the military application of nuclear energy. (globalsecurity.org)
  • A sense of alarm spread, along with a narrative that the Eisenhower administration had been complacent in the face of an acute military threat. (armscontrol.org)
  • Short of a military attack, the main threat to the North Korean people is starvation. (bigthink.com)
  • The initiation of military operations might reflect a conscious choice by national leaders, but a nuclear accident could mock the best laid plans. (armscontrolwonk.com)
  • Nuclear facilities as military targets? (taipeitimes.com)
  • The first plan was for the Cold War rivals to divert nuclear technology away from military use. (hnn.us)
  • They will help meet the president's goal of securing vulnerable nuclear materials world-wide in the coming years, and enable us to track and thwart nuclear trafficking, verify weapons reductions, and to develop tomorrow's cutting-edge technologies for our security and prosperity. (armscontrol.org)
  • That year Hemed Gimmel funded six Israeli physics graduate students to study overseas, including one to go to the University of Chicago and study under Enrico Fermi, who had overseen the world's first artificial and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has all the fingerprints of typical Russian nuclear weapons storage sites," said Hans Kristensen, the director of the nuclear information project at FAS. (wn.com)
  • Israel's first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was "nearly obsessed" with obtaining nuclear weapons to prevent the Holocaust from recurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The health effects of nuclear explosions are due primarily to air blast, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation, and residual nuclear radiation or fallout. (nap.edu)
  • Wind and solar already provide many essential reliability services as well or better than inflexible coal and nuclear plants. (ucsusa.org)
  • German market prices for electricity, largely produced by coal and nuclear plants, were about 12 cents per kilowatt-hour. (technologyreview.com)
  • The risk that I would like to discuss here is that the present stalemate may hide the opening of a completely new, much more dangerous phase of nuclear proliferation. (europeforpeace.eu)
  • The counter-proliferation, preventive strike Begin Doctrine added another dimension to Israel's existing nuclear policy. (wikipedia.org)