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• ###### entropy
• The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy can never decrease over time for an isolated system , that is, a system in which neither energy nor matter can enter nor leave. (wikipedia.org)
• Carnot's principle was recognized by Carnot at a time when the caloric theory of heat was seriously considered, before the recognition of the first law of thermodynamics , and before the mathematical expression of the concept of entropy. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### zeroth law of thermod
• The zeroth law of thermodynamics in its usual short statement allows recognition that two bodies in a relation of thermal equilibrium have the same temperature, especially that a test body has the same temperature as a reference thermometric body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### axiomatic
• The second law of thermodynamics may be expressed in many specific ways, the most prominent classical statements being the statement by Rudolf Clausius (1854), the statement by Lord Kelvin (1851), and the statement in axiomatic thermodynamics by Constantin Carathéodory (1909). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### adiabatic
• For a slow change, one can adopt the adiabatic approach and use the instantaneous system's Hamiltonian to derive L D {\displaystyle L_{D}} . An important class of problems in quantum thermodynamics is periodically driven systems. (wikipedia.org)
• The major role of atmospheric thermodynamics is expressed in terms of adiabatic and diabatic forces acting on air parcels included in primitive equations of air motion either as grid resolved or subgrid parameterizations. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Otto
• The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### physical chemistry
• Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### mechanical
• The Oxford English Dictionary says: 'Thermodynamics: the theory of the relations between heat and mechanical energy, and of the conversion of either into the other. (carleton.edu)
• ###### engineers
• Originally the domain of engineers, thermodynamics emerged from their engagement with machines. (wikiquote.org)
• ###### fundamental
• From a more fundamental point of view, the third law of thermodynamics suggests that there is a preference to take S = 0 at T = 0 (absolute zero) for perfectly ordered materials such as crystals. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### terms
• In practical terms, thermodynamics not only allows us to predict what minerals will form at different conditions ( forward modeling ), but also allows us to use mineral assemblages and mineral compositions to determine the conditions at which a rock formed ( thermobarometry ). (carleton.edu)
• ###### given
• The primary objective of chemical thermodynamics is the establishment of a criterion for the determination of the feasibility or spontaneity of a given transformation. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### quantities
• During the past ten years, I have introduced several new quantities which, in my opinion, should replace the conventional measures of solvation thermodynamics. (springer.com)
• ###### state
• For DNA oligonucleotides, i.e. short sequences of DNA, the thermodynamics of hybridization can be accurately described as a two-state process. (wikipedia.org)