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  • antibodies
  • Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage). (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, monoclonal antibodies are derived from a single cell line Many methodologies exist for polyclonal antibody production in laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biotechnology company, Symphogen, develops this type of antibodies for therapeutic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, polyclonal antibodies bind to multiple epitopes and are usually made by several different plasma cell (antibody secreting immune cell) lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bispecific monoclonal antibodies can also be engineered, by increasing the therapeutic targets of one single monoclonal antibody to two epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975, Georges Köhler and César Milstein succeeded in making fusions of myeloma cell lines with B cells to create hybridomas that could produce antibodies, specific to known antigens and that were immortalized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by cell culture that involves fusing myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells immunized with the desired antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies secreted by the different clones are then assayed for their ability to bind to the antigen (with a test such as ELISA or Antigen Microarray Assay) or immuno-dot blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biopharmaceuticals, which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). (wikipedia.org)
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Scientists can reverse engineer cell differentiation processes to understand what chemical or physical signals stem cells receive to properly differentiate. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Scientists generally agree that all cloned animals are biologically flawed. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is one reason why scientists generally believe that attempting to clone a human being is morally reprehensible. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although these animals generated entirely from cloned stem cells appear to be fine, many scientists don't accept this result as definitive. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • New, proteomic approaches, including T-cell and B-cells-epitope mapping, can also accelerate the pace at which scientists discover antibody-antigen relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • After months of trying, on October 13, 2001, we came into our laboratory at Advanced Cell Technology to see under the microscope what wed been striving forlittle balls of dividing cells not even visible to the naked eye. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • tissue
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists", "immortalists" or "longevists" (those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation, stem cells, regenerative medicine, molecular repair, gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, and organ replacement (such as with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespans (agerasia) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Strictly speaking, recombinant DNA refers to DNA molecules, while molecular cloning refers to the experimental methods used to assemble them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilmut
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • uterus
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • We believe that together these achievements, the details of which we reported November 25 in the online journal e-biomed: The Journal of Regenerative Medicine, represent the dawn of a new age in medicine by demonstrating that the goal of therapeutic cloning is within reach. (scientificamerican.com)
  • process
  • The cloning process appears simple, but success depends on many small factors, some of which we do not yet understand. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Their cloning process was a spectacular achievememt. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually any DNA sequence can be cloned and amplified, but there are some factors that might limit the success of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Laws and ethical regulations from the National Academy of Sciences and the International Society for Stem Cell Research prohibit monetary compensation for females who donate their eggs for embryonic stem cell research. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Because of the ethical gray areas surrounding embryonic stem cell research, people have reacted more positively to alternative methods like the ones described above. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The stem cell research including therapeutic cloning and genomics research needs to bo done now to accomplish our goal of finding the cure for old age. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Through stem cell research including therapeutic cloning and genomics research.The most difficult part of the nearly unthinkable has already been done. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom is one of the leaders in stem cell research, in the opinion of Lord Sainsbury, Science and Innovation Minister for the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new £10 million stem cell research centre has been announced at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, the NIH, under the administration of President Bill Clinton, issued "guidelines that allow federal funding of embryonic stem-cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • No federal law ever did ban stem cell research in the United States, but only placed restrictions on funding and use, under Congress's power to spend. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2004, 206 members of Congress, including many moderate Republicans, signed a letter urging President Bush to expand federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond what Bush had already supported. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 29, 2005, Senate Majority Leader William H. Frist (R-TN), announced that he too favored loosening restrictions on federal funding of embryonic stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)