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  • Solid Tumors
  • New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • However, the application of CAR T-cell therapy for solid tumors has not reached its full potential because of the lack of specific tumor antigens and inhibitory factors in suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) (e.g., programmed death ligand-1, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and transforming growth factor-β). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunology
  • Since the 1990s, tumor immunology has developed into a distinct discipline with a metamorphosis from clinical observations in oncology to understanding its scientific underpinnings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • This open access, peer-reviewed journal not only serves as the global voice of the society, but also a targeted outlet for the publication of original research articles, literature reviews, position papers and discussion on all aspects of tumor immunology and cancer immunotherapy -from basic research to clinical application. (sitcancer.org)
  • antitumor
  • Studies were designed to determine if vaccination of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA-Tg) mice (where CEA is a self-antigen) with a recombinant S. cerevisiae construct expressing human CEA (yeast-CEA) elicits CEA-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antitumor activity was determined by tumor growth and overall survival in both pulmonary metastasis and s.c. pancreatic tumor models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of the potential of recombinant S. cerevisiae for use in cancer therapy, we sought to determine whether a recombinant S. cerevisiae construct expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) would induce CEA-specific T-cell responses and show antitumor activity against CEA + tumors in CEA-transgenic (CEA-Tg) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This paper compiles knowledge regarding MUC1 as a promising tumor antigen for antitumor therapeutic vaccines applicable to numerous cancers. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the discovery that the immune system can control cancer progression, which has been conceptualized in the "three Es" theory [ 1 ] for "elimination, equilibrium, and escape," supporting the implications of the immune system in the control and selection of tumor cells, scientists and clinicians have tried to exploit this phenomenon to induce an antitumor immune response in cancer patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation that serves to dampen antitumor immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas can be susceptible to host immune-mediated growth inhibition, but negative signals from tumor cells usually prevent the mounting of an effective antitumor immune response in the host. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a delayed-treatment, aggressive, murine model of A20 B lymphoma that mimics human diffuse large B cell lymphoma, we show that therapeutic A20 lysate vaccine adjuvanted with an NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), provides long-term immune protection against lethal tumor challenges and the antitumor immunity is primarily CD8 T cell dependent. (jci.org)
  • Vaccination of mice reduced the size of primary transplanted 4T1 tumors and had an even greater antitumor effect on lung metastases of the same mice, which was dependent on Twist-specific CD8 + T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • vaccine
  • Immunization against defined tumor antigens using a xenogeneic DNA vaccine is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials for the treatment of melanoma and prostate cancers, with proposed trials for breast cancer and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Undefined and unidentified antigens are found in both allogeneic and autologous vaccine settings described below. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prominent examples of this type of vaccine based on undefined antigen are intact cells, cell lysate, total (amplified) RNA vaccines and heat-shock proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate for the first time effective therapeutic vaccination followed by eradication of established spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases using a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) DNA minigene vaccine. (openthesis.org)
  • Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of this vaccine was established following oral delivery using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207. (openthesis.org)
  • In summary, we demonstrate effective therapeutic vaccination against neuroblastoma with a novel rationally designed tyrosine hydroxylase minigene vaccine without induction of autoimmunity providing an important base line for clinical application of this strategy. (openthesis.org)
  • The single-arm study evaluated dogs that had primary tumor removal and four doses of carboplatin chemotherapy, followed by the therapeutic vaccine every three weeks for three doses. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this study, our goal was to develop a simple, clinically relevant, and easily translatable therapeutic vaccine that provides durable immune protection against aggressive B cell lymphoma and identify critical immune biomarkers that are predictive of long-term survival. (jci.org)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • melanoma
  • Secondly, we will summarize the data on immune responses generated to various proteins found on melanoma cells with an example of how differentiation antigens can be used as immunologic targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. (jci.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 stimulated extensive tumor necrosis with lymphocyte and granulocyte infiltrates in three of three metastatic melanoma patients and the reduction or stabilization of CA-125 levels in two of two metastatic ovarian carcinoma patients previously vaccinated with irradiated, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 did not elicit tumor necrosis in four of four metastatic melanoma patients previously immunized with defined melanosomal antigens. (pnas.org)
  • APCs
  • The T-cell receptor (TCR) detects antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the form of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-antigen peptide complex ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TCR binding to the MHC-antigen peptide complex induces a cascade of intracellular events as follows: phosphorylated TCR recruits intracellular second messengers to provide the first signal, and costimulatory molecules (CD28, CD27, CD134, CD137, or ICOS) at the T-cell surface bind to their corresponding receptors (CD80, CD86, CD137L, or ICOSL) on APCs, which further provides the second signal ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cytotoxic T-cel
  • After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. (jci.org)
  • When implanted into immune-deficient mice, the HER2-expressing 4T1 cells readily formed sizable tumors, indicating that these cells are useful for evaluating the therapeutic effect of adoptively transferred cytotoxic T cells that are specifically raised or modified to target the HER2 tumor antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • metastasis
  • and ( d ) tumor-bearing mice vaccinated with yeast-CEA show a reduction in tumor burden and increased overall survival compared to mock-treated or control yeast-vaccinated mice in both pulmonary metastasis and s.c. pancreatic tumor models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Numerous reports have now demonstrated that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is involved in solid tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a rapid tumor progression, early metastasis, and unresponsiveness to most conventional chemotherapies ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • responses
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a nonpathogenic yeast, has been used previously as a vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens, and tumor-associated antigens, and has been shown to reduce tumor burden in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our work to date provides evidence to suggest the clinical course of the primary tumor mimics the behavior and responses we have seen in our explants further supporting the potential clinical utility of our xenograft model. (massgeneral.org)
  • Although the presence of brisk T cell infiltrates in human tumors is correlated with improved clinical outcomes, host responses in most cases are insufficient to inhibit disease progression ( 8 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cancer cells typically lack the expression of costimulatory molecules necessary to prime potent T lymphocyte responses directly, and dendritic cells infiltrating established tumors generally display limited maturation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • malignant
  • My group molecularly interrogates gynecologic tumors to identify genes or proteins and their corresponding signaling pathways that contribute to malignant transformation, the pathology of the disease, recurrence and/or resistance to therapy. (massgeneral.org)
  • Furthermore, they are also unable to tell whether a premalignant mucinous cystic lesion has undergone malignant transformation or to distinguish PDAC from tumor-forming lesions caused by benign conditions such as chronic and autoimmune pancreatitis ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To facilitate the evaluation of immunotherapeutic intervention against malignant diseases, it is desirable to have a syngeneic tumor model that closely resembles the growth pattern of human tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • murine
  • In vivo evaluation shows that host immune response was generated against the HER2 tumor antigen, despite the high homology between HER2 and its murine counterpart ( neu gene). (hindawi.com)
  • novel
  • AbbVie leverages its expertise across multiple technology platforms to identify novel antigens and approaches needed to target them. (abbvie.com)
  • Once key factors or pathways are identified, we actively test novel anticancer drugs to determine their efficacy in tumor explant models. (massgeneral.org)
  • mice
  • The use of xenogeneic DNA in overcoming immune tolerance has been promising not only in inbred mice with transplanted tumors but also in outbred canines, which present with spontaneous tumors, as in the case of human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, tumor therapy studies have shown that when tumor-bearing mice are vaccinated with S. cerevisiae constructs expressing the appropriate point-mutated Ras protein, tumor growth is slowed ( 11 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • cancer
  • Today I'm going to talk about human tumor antigens as the therapeutic target of cancer. (hstalks.com)
  • Mutations of p53 tumor-suppressor gene in angiosarcoma' Int J Cancer. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Increased presence of Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn), a TACA, correlates with worsened outcome and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer (OvCa). (massgeneral.org)
  • The Company's pipeline includes therapeutic candidates targeting pain, inappetence, cancer, viral diseases, allergy and other serious medical conditions. (prnewswire.com)
  • The formulation of genetic and biochemical strategies to identify cancer antigens yielded the unexpected discovery that tumor development frequently evokes immune recognition ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • We could expand TIL (tumor infiltrating lymphocyte) effectively from operatively resected tumor tissue that locally immunized with OK432 preoperatively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Opposing inhibitory signals, such as those delivered by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), modulate the immune response and increase the threshold for T-cell activation ( 4 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • human
  • However, the efficacy was not high enough to utilize this method to human synovial sarcoma, it is necessary to establish more effective method to utilize this tumor specific gene rearrangement and the product. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We used the piggyBac transposon system to stably transduce a tumor antigen, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene ( HER2 ), into this tumor cell. (hindawi.com)
  • pancreatic
  • Albeit powerful, these imaging methods are not specific for PDAC and not designed for early detection when the tumor is still small and potentially curable, or the early premalignant lesions, such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs and, since there haven't been advances to raise the standard of care in nearly 20 years, dogs often face a poor prognosis,' states Ernst Heinen , DVM, PhD, Chief Development Officer of Aratana Therapeutics. (prnewswire.com)
  • metastases
  • However, because of lack of early and disease-specific clinical symptoms or signs in a majority of patients with PDACs, the disease is usually in an incurable stage at the time of diagnosis, either with distant metastases or with a locally advanced, and thus irresectable tumor ( 3-5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • yeast
  • In addition to the expected presentation of yeast-expressed antigen via MHC class II, antigen is delivered to MHC class I pathways by cross-presentation ( 6 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecules
  • By contrast, small molecules have been used to target those intracellular antigens with a functionality that is suitable for drug screening. (frontiersin.org)
  • target
  • In this review, we include some limitations in CAR design, such as tumor heterogeneity, indefinite spatial distance between CAR T-cell and its target cell, and suppressive TME. (frontiersin.org)