MathematicsProbabilityCovering theoreticalBehaviorAssertsPracticePositsPhysicsRefersMathematical logicTopologyFocusesPhenomenaPrinciplesFrameworkAtomicTheoristsAbstractEquationsEmpiricalFundamentalExplainsGeneralizationsOrganizational1960sStatistical theoryFormal2016InfluentialSuperconductivity18th-centuryDescribesQuantum theoryPrevious theoriesLigand fieldQuadratic formsNormalization ProcesUncountably categoricalParadigmTopologicalDisplaystyleFiniteElectronsKinetic20th centuryAssumptionsEconomicsPostulatesGraphsAnalytic numberOrganizationOtto ScharmerCaloric theoryPhlogiston theoryExplainApproaches1970sComputabilityGravitationalRelatesSociologicalSeeks1996General theorySuggestsProposesMicroscopicGeometryDefinitionMolecular1976ArithmeticProponentsComputationExtentSolids

- In mathematics, lifting theory was first introduced by John von Neumann in his (1931) pioneering paper (answering a question raised by Alfréd Haar), followed later by Dorothy Maharam's (1958) paper, and by A. Ionescu Tulcea and C. Ionescu Tulcea's (1961) paper. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistical physics and mathematics , percolation theory describes the behaviour of connected clusters in a random graph . (wikipedia.org)
- In topology, a branch of mathematics, braid theory is an abstract geometric theory studying the everyday braid concept, and some generalizations. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic. (wikipedia.org)
- In a similar way to proof theory, model theory is situated in an area of interdisciplinarity among mathematics, philosophy, and computer science. (wikipedia.org)
- The ambition of geometric model theory is to provide a geography of mathematics by embarking on a detailed study of definable sets in various mathematical structures, aided by the substantial tools developed in the study of pure model theory. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to certain foundational problems, the mathematics was framed in a non-well-founded set theory. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, coorbit theory was developed by Hans Georg Feichtinger and Karlheinz Gröchenig around 1990. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. (wikipedia.org)
- While Babylonian number theory-or what survives of Babylonian mathematics that can be called thus-consists of this single, striking fragment, Babylonian algebra (in the secondary-school sense of "algebra") was exceptionally well developed. (wikipedia.org)
- Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations. (wikipedia.org)
- In applied mathematics, antieigenvalue theory was developed by Karl Gustafson from 1966 to 1968. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, KK-theory is a common generalization both of K-homology and K-theory as an additive bivariant functor on separable C*-algebras. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, Fredholm theory is a theory of integral equations. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, KR-theory is a variant of topological K-theory defined for spaces with an involution. (wikipedia.org)
- String theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics, and it has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
- Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures. (wikipedia.org)
- Representation theory is pervasive across fields of mathematics, for two reasons. (wikipedia.org)
- Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. (princeton.edu)
- In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics , a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. (wikipedia.org)
- Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty. (princeton.edu)
- Order theory is a branch of mathematics that studies various kinds of objects (often binary relations ) that capture the intuitive notion of ordering, providing a framework for saying when one thing is "less than" or "precedes" another. (wikipedia.org)
- It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. (springer.com)
- This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. (cambridge.org)
- New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. (cambridge.org)

- Apart from philosophical considerations about how to make statistical inferences and decisions, much of statistical theory consists of mathematical statistics, and is closely linked to probability theory, to utility theory, and to optimization. (wikipedia.org)
- Possibility theory is a mathematical theory for dealing with certain types of uncertainty and is an alternative to probability theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Whereas probability theory uses a single number, the probability, to describe how likely an event is to occur, possibility theory uses two concepts, the possibility and the necessity of the event. (wikipedia.org)
- As a mathematical foundation for statistics , probability theory is essential to many human activities that involve quantitative analysis of large sets of data. (princeton.edu)
- Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, as in statistical mechanics . (princeton.edu)
- Initially, probability theory mainly considered discrete events, and its methods were mainly combinatorial . (princeton.edu)
- In probability theory , two events are independent , statistically independent , or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other. (wikipedia.org)
- In probability theory , an event is a set of outcomes of an experiment (a subset of the sample space ) to which a probability is assigned. (wikipedia.org)
- For the standard tools of probability theory, such as joint and conditional probabilities , to work, it is necessary to use a σ-algebra , that is, a family closed under complementation and countable unions of its members. (wikipedia.org)
- The truth is about Bayesian Theory of probability being a timely help in the search for the missing Malaysian Malaysian flight MH320, a BOEING 777. (slideshare.net)
- In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. (cambridge.org)
- Copula (probability theory) (7 t.t. (wikimedia.org)
- Theory of probability distributions (1 t.l. (wikimedia.org)
- Experiment (probability theory) (7 t.l. (wikimedia.org)
- A substantial fraction of this thesis draws ideas and tools from the rigorous theories of probability and thus it is apt to provide a fuller account of the rudimentary mathematical principles. (springer.com)
- This chapter does not aim to give an exhaustive exposition of probability theory (fuller discussion can be found in many existing texts, such as [2,5,10,11, but instead particular attention is given to the meaning of randomness, whereby a suitable parameterisation of the statistics involved can be formulated. (springer.com)
- A. Kolmogorov, Foundations of the Theory of Probability, 2nd edn. (springer.com)
- M. Loève, Probability Theory, 4th edn. (springer.com)

- Theory & Society is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering theoretical analyses of social processes and phenomena. (wikipedia.org)

- Social thought provides general theories to explain actions and behavior of society as a whole, encompassing sociological, political, and philosophical ideas. (wikipedia.org)
- Social behavior is explained by this theory as a veneer of morality. (wikipedia.org)
- De Waal bases his argument against the veneer theory on observations of behavior of humanity's relatives in his long work as primatologist. (wikipedia.org)
- Military theory is the analysis of normative behavior and trends in military affairs and military history, beyond simply describing events in war, Military theories, especially since the influence of Clausewitz in the nineteenth century, attempt to encapsulate the complex cultural, political and economic relationships between societies and the conflicts they create. (wikipedia.org)
- Scharmer then took the basic principles of this method and extended it into a theory of learning and management, which he calls Theory U. The principles of Theory U are suggested to help political leaders, civil servants, and managers break through past unproductive patterns of behavior that prevent them from empathizing with their clients' perspectives and often lock them into ineffective patterns of decision making. (wikipedia.org)
- There may also be directions for which the behavior of the perturbed orbit is more complicated (neither converging nor escaping completely), and then stability theory does not give sufficient information about the dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the key ideas in stability theory is that the qualitative behavior of an orbit under perturbations can be analyzed using the linearization of the system near the orbit. (wikipedia.org)
- The situational theory postulates that people can be identified and classified according to their problem awareness and information seeking behavior in problems solution process. (wikipedia.org)
- The great virtue of Landau theory is that it makes specific predictions for what kind of non-analytic behavior one should see when the underlying free energy is analytic. (wikipedia.org)
- Generativity Theory is a formal, predictive theory of creative behavior in individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- In a series of studies with animals and people, Epstein showed that Generativity Theory, cast into a series of equations called "transformation functions" and instantiated in a computer model, could be used to predict novel, creative behavior moment-to-moment in time in both animals and people under controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene-culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution. (wikipedia.org)
- As with K-selection, below, the r/K paradigm ( Differential K theory ) has controversially been associated with human behavior and separately evolved populations. (wikipedia.org)
- Organizational Behavior bridges the gap between theory and practice with a distinct "experiential" approach. (lulu.com)
- Until the acceptance of the germ theory, many people believed that disease was punishment for a person ' s evil behavior. (encyclopedia.com)

- Thus, the theory asserts that the apple is no more than the collection of its properties. (wikipedia.org)
- Market trends have three phases Dow theory asserts that major market trends are composed of three phases: an accumulation phase, a public participation (or absorption) phase, and a distribution phase. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory asserts that the process of interconnection is both orderly and predictable. (wikipedia.org)
- One result of these theories is the home-market effect, which asserts that, if an industry tends to cluster in one location because of returns to scale and if that industry faces high transportation costs, the industry will be located in the country with most of its demand, in order to minimize cost. (wikipedia.org)
- The gate control theory of pain asserts that non-painful input closes the "gates" to painful input, which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
- Gate control theory asserts that activation of nerves which do not transmit pain signals, called nonnociceptive fibers, can interfere with signals from pain fibers, thereby inhibiting pain. (wikipedia.org)

- According to ethnographer Bonnie Nardi, a leading theorist in AT, activity theory "focuses on practice, which obviates the need to distinguish 'applied' from 'pure' science-understanding everyday practice in the real world is the very objective of scientific practice. (wikipedia.org)
- The excellence theory resulted from a study about the best practice in public relations, which was headed by James E. Grunig and funded by the Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
- A standard practice in the microeconomics of contract theory is to represent the behaviour of a decision maker under certain numerical utility structures, and then apply an optimization algorithm to identify optimal decisions. (wikipedia.org)
- Normalization process theory focuses attention on agentic contributions - the things that individuals and groups do to operationalize new or modified modes of practice as they interact with dynamic elements of their environments. (wikipedia.org)
- These constructs are the core of the theory, and provide the foundation of its analytic purchase on practice. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, because money and financial institutions are at the center of practical affairs, theory and practice, advocacy and understanding, have been dangerously mixed. (encyclopedia.com)
- Learning theory , any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development. (britannica.com)

- Preference theory posits that in the rare countries that have fully achieved the new scenario for women (she cites only Britain and the Netherlands), women have genuine choices as to how they resolve the conflict between paid jobs and a major investment in family life. (wikipedia.org)
- In making a choice between options, living organisms need not maximize expected payoff as classical economic theory posits. (wikipedia.org)
- It later developed into superstring theory, which posits a connection called supersymmetry between bosons and the class of particles called fermions. (wikipedia.org)

- The theory is also used in nuclear physics to describe the pairing interaction between nucleons in an atomic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
- they received the Nobel Prize in Physics for this theory in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
- In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. (wikipedia.org)
- Theory of Mixtures, Part I. Continuum Physics. (wikipedia.org)
- Holographic theory may refer to: The holographic principle - a concept in physics whereby a space is considered as a hologram of n-1 dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
- In quantum physics, Regge theory is the study of the analytic properties of scattering as a function of angular momentum, where the angular momentum is not restricted to be an integer multiple of ħ but is allowed to take any complex value. (wikipedia.org)
- In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. (wikipedia.org)
- String theory is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics. (wikipedia.org)
- Because string theory potentially provides a unified description of gravity and particle physics, it is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. (wikipedia.org)
- Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. (wikipedia.org)
- Another issue is that the theory is thought to describe an enormous landscape of possible universes, and this has complicated efforts to develop theories of particle physics based on string theory. (wikipedia.org)
- These issues have led some in the community to criticize these approaches to physics and question the value of continued research on string theory unification. (wikipedia.org)
- The general theory of relativity is formulated within the framework of classical physics, whereas the other fundamental forces are described within the framework of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the problem of developing a consistent theory of quantum gravity, there are many other fundamental problems in the physics of atomic nuclei, black holes, and the early universe. (wikipedia.org)
- The starting point for string theory is the idea that the point-like particles of particle physics can also be modeled as one-dimensional objects called strings. (wikipedia.org)
- Landau theory in physics is a theory that Lev Landau introduced in an attempt to formulate a general theory of continuous (i.e., second-order) phase transitions. (wikipedia.org)
- Representation theory is also important in physics because, for example, it describes how the symmetry group of a physical system affects the solutions of equations describing that system. (wikipedia.org)
- Membrane Theory may refer to: M-theory, a theory in physics that unifies all of the consistent versions of superstring theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Theory choice was a main problem in the philosophy of science in the early 20th century, and under the impact of the new and controversial theories of relativity and quantum physics, came to involve how scientists should choose between competing theories. (wikipedia.org)
- Lorentz theoretically explained the Zeeman effect on the basis of his theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1902. (wikipedia.org)
- In physics , Ginzburg-Landau theory , often called Landau-Ginzburg theory , named after Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg and Lev Landau , is a mathematical physical theory used to describe superconductivity . (wikipedia.org)
- BCS theory , in physics , a comprehensive theory developed in 1957 by the American physicists John Bardeen , Leon N. Cooper , and John R. Schrieffer (their surname initials providing the designation BCS) to explain the behaviour of superconducting materials. (britannica.com)

- Turnpike theory refers to a set of economic theories about the optimal path of accumulation (often capital accumulation) in a system, depending on the initial and final levels. (wikipedia.org)
- The name of the theory refers to the idea that a turnpike is the fastest route between two points which are far apart, even if it is not the most direct route. (wikipedia.org)
- Instead of analyzing the whole structure, hierarchy theory refers to the analysis of hierarchical levels, and the interactions between them. (wikipedia.org)
- In philosophy, absolute theory usually refers to a theory based on concepts (such as the concept of space) that exist independently of other concepts and objects. (wikipedia.org)
- TPI-theory refers that new employees need to develop theoretical (T) and practical (P) skills towards the performance of the new job, but also satisfy needs of (I) interaction that exist among the new employees. (wikipedia.org)
- Compact theory refers to two theories related to the development of federal constitutions. (wikipedia.org)
- Archaeological theory refers to the various intellectual frameworks through which archaeologists interpret archaeological data. (wikipedia.org)

- In mathematical logic, a theory is complete if, for every formula in the theory's language, that formula or its negation is demonstrable. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematical logic, an elementary theory is one that involves axioms using only finitary first-order logic, without reference to set theory or using any axioms which have consistency strength equal to set theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. (wikipedia.org)

- While it is mainly qualitative, VSEPR has a quantitative basis in quantum chemical topology (QCT) methods such as the electron localization function and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). (wikipedia.org)
- Donaldson theory is the study of the topology of smooth 4-manifolds using moduli spaces of anti-self-dual instantons. (wikipedia.org)
- The case of positive characteristic, ideologically close to modular representation theory, is an area of active study, with links to algebraic topology. (wikipedia.org)
- The same objects can be studied using methods from algebraic geometry, module theory, analytic number theory, differential geometry, operator theory, algebraic combinatorics and topology. (wikipedia.org)
- topology, the two men created category theory , the general cohomology of groups, and the basis for the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms for homology of topological spaces. (britannica.com)

- This article focuses on finitary first order model theory of infinite structures. (wikipedia.org)
- Constitutional theory is an area of constitutional law that focuses on the underpinnings of constitutional government. (wikipedia.org)
- Constitutional theory in the United States is an academic discipline that focuses on the meaning of the United States Constitution. (wikipedia.org)
- Hierarchy theory focuses on levels of organization and issues of scale, with a specific focus on the role of the observer in the definition of the system. (wikipedia.org)
- Equity theory focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. (wikipedia.org)
- While traditional musical set theory focuses on the makeup of musical objects, transformational theory focuses on the intervals or types of musical motion that can occur. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory gives more credit to the active rehearsal of information, as refreshing items to be remembered focuses attention back on the information to be remembered in order for it to be better processed and stored in memory. (wikipedia.org)
- For the modern development, see Ricardian theory of international trade (modern development) The Ricardian model focuses on comparative advantage, which arises due to differences in technology or natural resources. (wikipedia.org)
- This communication theory is positivistic in its approach, based in the socio-psychological communication tradition, and focuses on communication at the mass media scale. (wikipedia.org)
- System theory is "a general science of wholeness": rather than dissecting a complex process and studying the individual parts, system theory focuses on understanding the complete system and the underlying interactions of all the forces that make up that system. (cdc.gov)

- Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms used to study and interpret social phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
- The Bohr-Kramers-Slater (BKS) theory was perhaps the final attempt at understanding the interaction of matter and electromagnetic radiation on the basis of the so-called old quantum theory, in which quantum phenomena are treated by imposing quantum restrictions on classically describable behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
- Among the most important SLA theories recently discussed in Van Patten (2007a), no other can accommodate such a variety of phenomena or seems able to offer the basis for so many new directions. (wikipedia.org)
- A number of instruments have been created to measure Reversal Theory phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
- The introduction of length contraction and time dilation for all phenomena in a "preferred" frame of reference , which plays the role of Lorentz's immobile aether, leads to the complete Lorentz transformation (see the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory as an example). (wikipedia.org)
- Still, construing theory broadly as any attempt to systematize and explain certain phenomena, it is clear that theories play a central role in social science . (encyclopedia.com)
- Many social-science pioneers, for example, Karl Marx , É mile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons , Sigmund Freud , Clark Hull, and Paul Samuelson, developed ambitious theories intended to explain a wide range of social phenomena. (encyclopedia.com)
- Caloric theory , explanation, widely accepted in the 18th century, of the phenomena of heat and combustion in terms of the flow of a hypothetical weightless fluid known as caloric. (britannica.com)
- NPT explains phenomena not well covered by existing theories. (slideshare.net)

- Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of primary colors. (wikipedia.org)
- This has led to a number of inaccuracies in traditional color theory principles that are not always remedied in modern formulations. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory covers approaches to statistical-decision problems and to statistical inference, and the actions and deductions that satisfy the basic principles stated for these different approaches. (wikipedia.org)
- Mixture theory is used to model multiphase systems using the principles of continuum mechanics generalised to several interpenetrable continua. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, but difficulties arise when one attempts to apply the usual prescriptions of quantum theory to the force of gravity. (wikipedia.org)
- Introduces the framework, process and core principles for Theory U by Otto Scharmer. (slideshare.net)
- For much of the twentieth-century, philosophers (and many social scientists) accepted the logical-positivist view that a theory is an axiomatized deductive system consisting of a few basic principles or laws (e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
- Such theories are tested by deriving predictions from basic principles, bridge laws, and statements describing the test situation, and then determining whether those predictions come true. (encyclopedia.com)
- The subject includes rational choice theory, which seeks to formulate and justify the normative principles that govern optimal decision making, and descriptive choice theory, which aims to explain how human beings actually make decisions. (encyclopedia.com)
- To the extent that the Schrödinger equation can be solved for more-complex cases, atomic theory is capable of predicting from first principles the properties of all atoms and their interactions. (britannica.com)
- Modern abiogenesis hypotheses are based largely on the same principles as the Oparin-Haldane theory and the Miller-Urey experiment. (britannica.com)
- Elaboration theory should be reformulated into a set of guiding principles referenced more clearly to learning processes. (psu.edu)

- Coexistence theory is a framework to understand how competitor traits can maintain species diversity and stave-off competitive exclusion even among similar species living in ecologically similar environments. (wikipedia.org)
- The framework of linearized Debye-Hückel theory subsequently was applied to colloidal dispersions by Levine and Dube who found that charged colloidal particles should experience a strong medium-range repulsion and a weaker long-range attraction. (wikipedia.org)
- Activity theory is more of a descriptive meta-theory or framework than a predictive theory. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory has been used as a framework by several scientists from Europe and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
- Secondly, PT's framework has been substantially widened by including Bresnan's (2001) Lexical Mapping Theory, and thus adding a discoursepragmatically motivated syntactic component (Pienemann, Di Biase & Kawaguchi 2005) to its first syntactically motivated morphological module. (wikipedia.org)
- String theory is a theoretical framework that attempts to address these questions and many others. (wikipedia.org)
- Such a procedure has been used in the contract theory framework to several typical situations, labeled moral hazard, adverse selection and signalling. (wikipedia.org)
- Participatory theory, vision or framework is a conceptual framework which attempts to bridge the subject-object distinction. (wikipedia.org)
- Other archaeological theories, such as Marxist archaeology, instead interpret archaeological evidence within a framework for how its proponents believe society operates. (wikipedia.org)
- The elaboration theory provides a macro prescriptive framework for selecting, sequencing, synthesizing and summarizing the content. (psu.edu)

- The two theories were considered to be equivalent at the time, but kinetic theory was the more modern one, as it used a few ideas from atomic theory and could explain both combustion and calorimetry. (wikipedia.org)
- In the mid-twentieth century, before the development of atomic clocks, lunar theory and observation were used in combination to implement an astronomical time scale (ephemeris time) free of the irregularities of mean solar time. (wikipedia.org)
- It provides theory for atomic decomposition of a range of Banach spaces of distributions. (wikipedia.org)
- An important aspect of the theory is the derivation of atomic decompositions for Banach spaces. (wikipedia.org)
- Rendered obsolete by cytology , discovery of DNA , and atomic theory . (wikipedia.org)
- The ancient atomic theory was proposed in the 5th century bc by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus and was revived in the 1st century bc by the Roman philosopher and poet Lucretius . (britannica.com)
- The modern atomic theory, which has undergone continuous refinement, began to flourish at the beginning of the 19th century with the work of the English chemist John Dalton . (britannica.com)
- With the advent of quantum mechanics and the Schrödinger equation in the 1920s, atomic theory became a precise mathematical science . (britannica.com)

- Architectural theory is often didactic, and theorists tend to stay close to or work from within schools. (wikipedia.org)
- Model theory developed rapidly during the 1990s, and a more modern definition is provided by Wilfrid Hodges (1997): model theory = algebraic geometry − fields, although model theorists are also interested in the study of fields. (wikipedia.org)
- In late 1997, theorists discovered an important relationship called the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates string theory to another type of physical theory called a quantum field theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Part I of this book examines theories and theorists. (lulu.com)

- Invariant theory is a branch of abstract algebra dealing with actions of groups on algebraic varieties, such as vector spaces, from the point of view of their effect on functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Theory is a type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or its result. (wikipedia.org)
- In a broader sense, the abstract structure of Fredholm's theory is given in terms of the spectral theory of Fredholm operators and Fredholm kernels on Hilbert space. (wikipedia.org)
- In abstract algebra, multiplicity theory concerns the multiplicity of a module M at an ideal I (often a maximal ideal) e I ( M ) . {\displaystyle \mathbf {e} _{I}(M).} The notion of the multiplicity of a module is a generalization of the degree of a projective variety. (wikipedia.org)
- Representation theory is a useful method because it reduces problems in abstract algebra to problems in linear algebra, a subject that is well understood. (wikipedia.org)
- In this case, the idea of representation theory is to do abstract algebra concretely by using n × n matrices of real or complex numbers. (wikipedia.org)
- abstract computability theory The theory of functions that can be computed by algorithms on any algebra . (encyclopedia.com)
- Abstract computability theory starts with an analysis and classification of many models of computation and specification that apply to algebras. (encyclopedia.com)
- Most of the main results in the theory of computability on the natural numbers can also be proved for abstract computability theory on any finite generated minimal algebra . (encyclopedia.com)

- It began with the 1948 paper, "On the Problem of the Molecular Theory of Superconductivity", where Fritz London proposed that the phenomenological London equations may be consequences of the coherence of a quantum state. (wikipedia.org)
- Both theories lead to rate equations of the same exponential form. (wikipedia.org)
- Many parts of the qualitative theory of differential equations and dynamical systems deal with asymptotic properties of solutions and the trajectories-what happens with the system after a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
- Like other models, mixture theory requires constitutive relations to close the system of equations. (wikipedia.org)
- Horndeski's theory is the most general theory of gravity in four dimensions whose Lagrangian is constructed out of the metric tensor and a scalar field and leads to second order equations of motion[clarification needed]. (wikipedia.org)
- Bifurcation theory is the mathematical study of changes in the qualitative or topological structure of a given family, such as the integral curves of a family of vector fields, and the solutions of a family of differential equations. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory, which was developed mainly between 1892 and 1906 by Lorentz and Poincaré, was based on the aether theory of Augustin-Jean Fresnel , Maxwell's equations and the electron theory of Rudolf Clausius . (wikipedia.org)
- For those who don't know, metabolic theory is a set of simple equations that are capable of describing the energy consumption of practically every living organism. (scienceblogs.com)

- Today, much of value theory aspires to the scientifically empirical , recording what people do value and attempting to understand why they value it in the context of psychology , sociology , and economics . (wikipedia.org)
- He argues that the advocates of the veneer theory don't have any indications or empirical evidence which support the theory, and that it is highly unlikely that humans can deny their genes and improve morality merely by choice. (wikipedia.org)
- Constructed upon a number of middle-range theories, and tested with surveys and interviews of professionals and CEOs in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada, the Excellence theory provides a "theoretical and empirical benchmark" for public relations units. (wikipedia.org)
- If two theories could not, for practical reasons, be tested one should prefer the one with the highest degree of empirical content, said Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery. (wikipedia.org)
- New trade theory tries to explain empirical elements of trade that comparative advantage-based models above have difficulty with. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory was popular in the 1970s and 1980s, when it was used as a heuristic device, but lost importance in the early 1990s, when it was criticized by several empirical studies. (wikipedia.org)

- In particular, the equivalent lone pairs of water and carbonyl compounds in VSEPR theory neglect fundamental differences in the symmetries (σ vs. π) of molecular orbitals and natural bond orbitals that correspond to them, a difference that is sometimes chemically significant. (wikipedia.org)
- The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th century theories of color vision, as the fundamental sensory qualities that are blended in the perception of all physical colors and equally in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1941, Derjaguin and Landau introduced a theory for the stability of colloidal dispersions that invoked a fundamental instability driven by strong but short-ranged van der Waals attractions countered by the stabilizing influence of electrostatic repulsions. (wikipedia.org)
- Weyl (1939b, p.489) Cayley, whose fundamental work establishing "invariant theory" was "On the Theory of Linear Transformations (1845). (wikipedia.org)
- The fundamental premise in selectorate theory is that the primary goal of a leader is to remain in power. (wikipedia.org)
- A fundamental concept of Lorentz's theory in 1895 [A was the "theorem of corresponding states" for terms of order v / c . (wikipedia.org)
- The germ theory is a fundamental tenet of medicine that states that microorganisms, which are too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope, can invade the body and cause certain diseases. (encyclopedia.com)

- Coexistence theory explains the stable coexistence of species as an interaction between two opposing forces: fitness differences between species, which should drive the best-adapted species to exclude others within a particular ecological niche, and stabilizing mechanisms, which maintains diversity via niche differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory explains the aggregation of aqueous dispersions quantitatively and describes the force between charged surfaces interacting through a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
- Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions. (wikipedia.org)
- The multi-systems theory of organization communication explains that it is important for organizations to deal with communication at various system levels, including employee subsystems, consumer system, intersystem relations between employees and a clientele, public relations communications of the total organization, and inter-organizational communication. (wikipedia.org)
- Traditional bundle theory explains the compresence of properties by defining an object as a collection of properties bound together. (wikipedia.org)
- By contrast, substance theory explains the compresence of properties by asserting that the properties are found together because it is the substance that has those properties. (wikipedia.org)
- The bundle theory of substance explains compresence. (wikipedia.org)
- The first is Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a theory that explains the force of gravity and the structure of space and time. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. (wikipedia.org)
- The BCS theory also explains the isotope effect , in which the temperature at which superconductivity appears is reduced if heavier atoms of the elements making up the material are introduced. (britannica.com)

- Social theory is used to make distinctions and generalizations among different types of societies, and to analyze modernity as it has emerged in the past few centuries. (wikipedia.org)
- R or in the whole complex plane (R = ∞). Subsequent generalizations extended Nevanlinna theory to algebroid functions, holomorphic curves, holomorphic maps between complex manifolds of arbitrary dimension, quasiregular maps and minimal surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- Historically, contingency theory has sought to formulate broad generalizations about the formal structures that are typically associated with or best fit the use of different technologies. (wikipedia.org)
- The success of representation theory has led to numerous generalizations. (wikipedia.org)

- Leont'ev's formulation of general activity theory is currently the most influential in post-Soviet developments in AT, which have largely been in social-scientific, organizational, and writing-studies rather than psychological research. (wikipedia.org)
- A contingency theory is an organizational theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. (wikipedia.org)
- They suggested that previous theories such as Weber's bureaucracy and Taylor's scientific management had failed because they neglected that management style and organizational structure were influenced by various aspects of the environment: the contingency factors. (wikipedia.org)
- Their structural contingency theory was the dominant paradigm of organizational structural theories for most of the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
- It based on Grunig's situational theory of publics and multi-systems theory of organizational communication. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory of TPI is an attempt to reconcile theoretical understanding of organizational socialization such as the process of integration. (wikipedia.org)
- Normalization process theory ( NPT ) is a sociological theory of the implementation, embedding, and integration of new technologies and organizational innovations developed by Carl R. May , Tracy Finch, and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
- Complexity theory and organizations , also called complexity strategy or complex adaptive organizations , is the use of the study of complexity systems in the field of strategic management and organizational studies . (wikipedia.org)
- Complexity theory has been used in the fields of strategic management and organizational studies . (wikipedia.org)
- Complexity theory also relates to knowledge management (KM) and organizational learning (OL). (wikipedia.org)
- The contents of this book were designed and used by Dr. Shuler to teach a masters level course in organizational theory at a major state university. (lulu.com)

- While the trace monoid had been studied by Pierre Cartier and Dominique Foata for its combinatorics in the 1960s, trace theory was first formulated by Antoni Mazurkiewicz in the 1970s, in an attempt to evade some of the problems in the theory of concurrent computation, including the problems of interleaving and non-deterministic choice with regards to refinement in process calculi. (wikipedia.org)
- A later paper of Hilbert (1893) dealt with the same questions in more constructive and geometric ways, but remained virtually unknown until David Mumford brought these ideas back to life in the 1960s, in a considerably more general and modern form, in his geometric invariant theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Considered one of the justice theories, equity theory was first developed in the 1960s by J. Stacy Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others (Adams, 1963). (wikipedia.org)
- String theory was first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force, before being abandoned in favor of quantum chromodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- Complexity theory is an interdisciplinary theory that grew out of systems theory in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)

- Statistical theory provides an underlying rationale and provides a consistent basis for the choice of methodology used in applied statistics. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Statistical theory provides a guide to comparing methods of data collection, where the problem is to generate informative data using optimization and randomization while measuring and controlling for observational error. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical theory provides a basis for good data collection and the structuring of investigations in the topics of: Design of experiments to estimate treatment effects, to test hypotheses, and to optimize responses. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical theory provides the basis for a number of data analytic methods that are common across scientific and social research. (wikipedia.org)
- Burnham K.P., Anderson D.R. (1998) Statistical Theory. (springer.com)

- The objects of study are models of theories in a formal language. (wikipedia.org)
- Perturbation theory leads to an expression for the desired solution in terms of a formal power series in some "small" parameter - known as a perturbation series - that quantifies the deviation from the exactly solvable problem. (wikipedia.org)
- those in the computer science field focus on the theory of subrecursive hierarchies, formal methods, and formal languages. (wikipedia.org)
- from "Generalized Musical Intervals and Transformations", hereafter GMIT, p. 159) The formal setting for Lewin's theory is a set S (or "space") of musical objects, and a set T of transformations on that space. (wikipedia.org)
- Because classes do not have any formal status in the theory of ZF, the axioms of ZF do not immediately apply to classes. (wikipedia.org)
- But many are less formal, with a looser connection between theory, on the one hand, and explanation and prediction, on the other. (encyclopedia.com)
- The observations by William Stanley Jevons (1835 - 1882) concerning the failure of the double coincidence of wants may be regarded as a precursor to much formal mathematical work on the microeconomic theory of money. (encyclopedia.com)

- In 2016, Oliver Hart and Bengt R. Holmström both received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their work on contract theory, covering many topics from CEO pay to privatizations. (wikipedia.org)

- As evidenced by de Waals' characterisation of this theory as "Hobbesian", one of the earliest and most influential thinkers criticized by him for having popularized this view is Thomas Hobbes: The traditional view is that of a contract among our ancestors, who decided to live together "by covenant only, which is artificial," as Thomas Hobbes put it. (wikipedia.org)
- Combining early concepts derived from the specificity theory and the peripheral pattern theory , the gate control theory is considered to be one of the most influential theories of pain because it provided a neural basis which reconciled the specificity and pattern theories and ultimately revolutionized pain research. (wikipedia.org)
- The caloric theory was influential until the mid-19th century, by which time many kinds of experiments, primarily with the mechanical equivalent of heat, forced a general recognition that heat is a form of energy transfer and, in particular, that limitless amounts of heat could be generated by doing work on a substance. (britannica.com)
- Paradoxically, in spite of this ambivalence, psychoanalytic theory is probably the most influential contemporary theoretical system affecting the treatment of interpersonal difficulties. (springer.com)

- BCS theory or Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's 1911 discovery. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory describes superconductivity as a microscopic effect caused by a condensation of Cooper pairs into a boson-like state. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1986, high-temperature superconductivity was discovered in some materials at temperatures up to about 130 K, considerably above the previous limit of about 30 K. It is believed that BCS theory alone cannot explain this phenomenon and that other effects are in play. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory does not explain non-analyticity at the critical point, but when applied to superfluid and superconductor phase transition, Landau's theory provided inspiration for another theory, the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity. (wikipedia.org)
- In Ginzburg-Landau theory the electrons that contribute to superconductivity were proposed to form a superfluid . (wikipedia.org)

- These theories were enhanced by 18th-century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular the contrast between "complementary" or opposing hues that are produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light. (wikipedia.org)
- Bundle theory, originated by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, is the ontological theory about objecthood in which an object consists only of a collection (bundle) of properties, relations or tropes. (wikipedia.org)

- The theory describes the asymptotic distribution of solutions of the equation ƒ(z) = a, as a varies. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite much work on these problems, it is not known to what extent string theory describes the real world or how much freedom the theory allows in the choice of its details. (wikipedia.org)
- String theory describes how strings propagate through space and interact with each other. (wikipedia.org)
- Membrane theory of shells, describes the mechanical properties of shells. (wikipedia.org)
- The holonomic brain theory , developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm , is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network. (archive.org)
- However, as I have indicated above, constructivist theory requires that we turn our attention by 180 degrees we must turn our back on any idea of an all-encompassing machine which describes nature and instead look towards all those wonderful, individual living beings---the learners---each of whom creates his or her own model to explain nature. (exploratorium.edu)

- The provocativeness of the theory also generated great discussion and renewed attention to the difficulties in the foundations of the old quantum theory. (wikipedia.org)
- R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 3rd edn. (springer.com)

- In this paper, Wever discusses previous theories of hearing and introduces volley theory using support from his own experiments and research. (wikipedia.org)

- You just viewed Ligand Field Theory . (merlot.org)
- If you know the author of Ligand Field Theory , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (merlot.org)

- Invariant theory of infinite groups is inextricably linked with the development of linear algebra, especially, the theories of quadratic forms and determinants. (wikipedia.org)

- The dynamics of implementation processes are complex, but Normalization Process Theory facilitates understanding by focusing attention on the mechanisms through which participants invest and contribute to them. (wikipedia.org)
- Normalization process theory is regarded as a middle range theory that is located within the 'turn to materiality' in STS. (wikipedia.org)

- An important step in the evolution of classical model theory occurred with the birth of stability theory (through Morley's theorem on uncountably categorical theories and Shelah's classification program), which developed a calculus of independence and rank based on syntactical conditions satisfied by theories. (wikipedia.org)
- Some examples of complete theories are: Presburger arithmetic Tarski's axioms for Euclidean geometry The theory of dense linear orders The theory of algebraically closed fields of a given characteristic The theory of real closed fields Every uncountably categorical countable theory Every countably categorical countable theory A group of three elements Łoś-Vaught test Logic portal Mendelson, Elliott (1997). (wikipedia.org)

- Tissue Organization Field Theory (TOFT) is an alternative to what is sort of the dominant paradigm in cancer biology, the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT) . (scienceblogs.com)

- The results of Donaldson theory depend therefore on the manifold having a differential structure, and are largely false for topological 4-manifolds. (wikipedia.org)
- Broad in its mathematical coverage, Pattern Theory spans algebra and statistics, as well as local topological and global entropic properties. (wikipedia.org)

- The original classical Marcus theory for outer sphere electron transfer reactions demonstrates the importance of the solvent and leads the way to the calculation of the Gibbs free energy of activation, using the polarization properties of the solvent, the size of the reactants, the transfer distance and the Gibbs free energy Δ {\displaystyle \Delta } G0 of the redox reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- The most startling result of Marcus' theory was the "inverted region": whereas the reaction rates usually become higher with increasing exergonicity of the reaction, electron transfer should, according to Marcus theory, become slower in the very negative Δ {\displaystyle \Delta } G0 domain. (wikipedia.org)
- Let G {\displaystyle G} be a group, and V {\displaystyle V} a finite-dimensional vector space over a field k {\displaystyle k} (which in classical invariant theory was usually assumed to be the complex numbers). (wikipedia.org)
- If the answer is yes, then the next question is to find a minimal basis, and ask whether the module of polynomial relations between the basis elements (known as the syzygies) is finitely generated over k [ V ] {\displaystyle k[V]} . Invariant theory of finite groups has intimate connections with Galois theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Motivated by the example, we have the following definitions: A generator g ∈ G {\displaystyle g{\in }G} , drawn as is the primitive of Pattern Theory that generates the observed signal. (wikipedia.org)
- From kinetic theory it is known that a molecule of A has an average velocity (different from root mean square velocity) of c A = 8 k B T π m A {\displaystyle c_{A}={\sqrt {\frac {8k_{B}T}{\pi m_{A}}}}} , where k B {\displaystyle \scriptstyle k_{B}} is Boltzmann constant and m A {\displaystyle \scriptstyle m_{A}} is the mass of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- The free parameters of the theory, especially the contributions from L 4 {\displaystyle {\cal {L}}_{4}} and L 5 {\displaystyle {\cal {L}}_{5}} , are strongly constrained by the direct measurement of the speed of gravitational waves following GW170817. (wikipedia.org)
- Any such theory satisfies Bott periodicity in the appropriate sense since K K {\displaystyle {\mathsf {KK}}} does. (wikipedia.org)
- Much of Fredholm theory concerns itself with finding solutions for the integral equation g ( x ) = ∫ a b K ( x , y ) f ( y ) d y . {\displaystyle g(x)=\int _{a}^{b}K(x,y)f(y)\,dy. (wikipedia.org)
- This symmetry is reflected in the even powers of Ψ {\displaystyle \Psi } in F {\displaystyle F} . Landau theory has been extraordinarily useful. (wikipedia.org)

- Finite model theory, which concentrates on finite structures, diverges significantly from the study of infinite structures in both the problems studied and the techniques used. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of early results from model theory applied to fields are Tarski's elimination of quantifiers for real closed fields, Ax's theorem on pseudo-finite fields, and Robinson's development of non-standard analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Modern research in invariant theory of finite groups emphasizes "effective" results, such as explicit bounds on the degrees of the generators. (wikipedia.org)
- In the long run, fossil fuel resources are finite, so Hubbert's Peak Theory applies, but it does not appear to be a threat in the near term. (investopedia.com)

- BCS theory starts from the assumption that there is some attraction between electrons, which can overcome the Coulomb repulsion. (wikipedia.org)
- What is now often called Lorentz ether theory ( LET ) has its roots in Hendrik Lorentz 's "theory of electrons", which was the final point in the development of the classical aether theories at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory supplies a means by which the energy required to separate the Cooper pairs into their individual electrons can be measured experimentally. (britannica.com)
- Lewis theory , generalization concerning acids and bases introduced in 1923 by the U.S. chemist Gilbert N. Lewis , in which an acid is regarded as any compound which, in a chemical reaction , is able to attach itself to an unshared pair of electrons in another molecule. (britannica.com)

- Besides the caloric theory, another theory existed in the late eighteenth century that could explain the phenomenon of heat: the kinetic theory . (wikipedia.org)
- His results were not seen as a "threat" to caloric theory at the time, as this theory was considered to be equivalent to the alternative kinetic theory . (wikipedia.org)
- Kinetic theory may refer to: Kinetic theory of gases, an account of gas properties in terms of motion and interaction of microscopic particles Phonons, explaining properties of solids in terms of quantal collection and interactions of microscopic particles. (wikipedia.org)
- The kinetic theory of matter can be used to explain how solids, liquids and gases are interchangeable as a result of increase or decrease in heat energy. (le.ac.uk)

- The foundations of pre-20th-century color theory were built around "pure" or ideal colors, characterized by sensory experiences rather than attributes of the physical world. (wikipedia.org)
- Social theory as a distinct discipline emerged in the 20th century and was largely equated with an attitude of critical thinking and the desire for knowledge through a posteriori methods of discovery, rather than a priori methods of tradition. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of the term arithmetic for number theory regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century, arguably in part due to French influence. (wikipedia.org)

- This theory, which considers the soil to be in a state of plastic equilibrium, makes the assumptions that the soil is homogeneous, isotropic and has internal friction. (wikipedia.org)
- The H-O model makes the following core assumptions: Labor and capital flow freely between sectors The amount of labor and capital in two countries differ (difference in endowments) Technology is the same among countries (a long-term assumption) Tastes are the same In 1953, Wassily Leontief published a study in which he tested the validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory. (wikipedia.org)
- New trade theories are often based on assumptions such as monopolistic competition and increasing returns to scale. (wikipedia.org)

- In ecological economics value theory is separated into two types: donor-type value and receiver-type value. (wikipedia.org)
- In economics, contract theory studies how economic actors can and do construct contractual arrangements, generally in the presence of asymmetric information. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of its connections with both agency and incentives, contract theory is often categorized within a field known as Law and economics. (wikipedia.org)
- Nudge theory (or nudge) is a concept in behavioural science, political theory and economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to try to achieve non-forced compliance to influence the motives, incentives and decision making of groups and individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- Auction theory is an applied branch of economics which deals with how people act in auction markets and researches the properties of auction markets. (wikipedia.org)
- International trade theory is a sub-field of economics which analyzes the patterns of international trade, its origins, and its welfare implications. (wikipedia.org)
- Hegemonic stability theory ( HST ) is a theory of international relations , rooted in research from the fields of political science , economics , and history . (wikipedia.org)
- A single and simple conception of theory is unlikely to apply across all fields, from mathematical economics to cultural anthropology. (encyclopedia.com)
- An intrinsic theory of value (also called theory of objective value ) is any theory of value in economics which holds that the value of an object, good or service, is intrinsic , meaning that it can be estimated using objective measures. (wikipedia.org)

- This theory postulates that by making short-term commercial transactions that will mature in a timely manner will keep banks in a ready state to meet the demands of their depositors. (wikipedia.org)
- The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. (wikipedia.org)

- Cliques are one of the basic concepts of graph theory and are used in many other mathematical problems and constructions on graphs. (wikipedia.org)
- Graph theory is the study of graphs , systems of nodes or vertices connected in pairs by edges . (wikipedia.org)

- Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (e.g., the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory). (wikipedia.org)

- The most prominent professional organization in the field of model theory is the Association for Symbolic Logic. (wikipedia.org)
- The Excellence Theory explained that the value of public relations lies in organization-public relations. (wikipedia.org)
- The excellence theory evolved from four approaches: goal attainment, systems, strategic constituencies, and competing values, with the competing values approach bridging the gap between strategic constituencies and organization's goals by stating that an organization must integrate strategic constituencies' values with its goals so that the organization attains the goals of most value to its strategic constituencies. (wikipedia.org)
- The enterprise theory of crime understands the organization of criminal behaviour as reflective of specific environmental factors - market or economic forces, influencing the motivations of criminals, how they interact, their perceptions or risk versus benefit, and the efficiency and efficacy of their modus operandi. (wikipedia.org)
- Organization Theory: Just the Facts provides an approach to studying the design and administration of complex organizations. (lulu.com)
- Part II looks at government administration and general systems theory, and Part III covers internal organization and individuals. (lulu.com)
- Tissue Organization Field Theory is an alternative explanation for the origins of cancer. (scienceblogs.com)

- Theory U is a change management method and the title of a book by Otto Scharmer. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the early 2000s, the U-procedure method has been elaborated as Theory U (also called "U" methodology) by C. Otto Scharmer, incorporating also his theories of presencing and capitalism 3.0. (wikipedia.org)

- The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a self-repellent fluid called caloric that flows from hotter bodies to colder bodies. (wikipedia.org)
- The "caloric theory" was superseded by the mid-19th century in favor of the mechanical theory of heat , but nevertheless persisted in some scientific literature-particularly in more popular treatments-until the end of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
- There is one version of the caloric theory that was introduced by Antoine Lavoisier . (wikipedia.org)
- Since heat was a material substance in caloric theory, and therefore could neither be created nor destroyed, conservation of heat was a central assumption. (wikipedia.org)
- The introduction of the caloric theory was also influenced by the experiments of Joseph Black related to the thermal properties of materials. (wikipedia.org)
- However, one of the greatest apparent confirmations of the caloric theory was Pierre-Simon Laplace 's theoretical correction of Sir Isaac Newton 's calculation of the speed of sound . (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, to some of his contemporaries, the results added to the understanding of caloric theory. (wikipedia.org)

- In his paper "Réflexions sur le phlogistique" (1783), Lavoisier argued that phlogiston theory was inconsistent with his experimental results, and proposed a 'subtle fluid' called caloric as the substance of heat . (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the phlogiston theory was entirely replaced by the quite different concept of energy and related laws. (wikipedia.org)

- The theory attempts to explain associative or Hebbian learning , in which simultaneous activation of cells leads to pronounced increases in synaptic strength between those cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory did not explain the observed instability of colloidal dispersions against irreversible aggregation in solutions of high ionic strength. (wikipedia.org)
- Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions - the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
- Moderation theory is a set of interrelated hypotheses that explain the process through which political groups eschew radical platforms in favor of more moderate policies and prefer electoral, compromising and non-confrontational strategies over non-electoral, exclusive, and confrontational strategies. (wikipedia.org)
- Treisman proposed attenuation theory as a means to explain how unattended stimuli sometimes came to be processed in a more rigorous manner than what Broadbent's filter model could account for. (wikipedia.org)
- Canonical Theory (also named the "canonical form") is a molecular theory developed by Joel E. Keizer and coworkers which claims to explain many physical, chemical, and biological processes in an unified and canonical way. (wikipedia.org)
- Balloonist theory was a theory in early neuroscience that attempted to explain muscle movement by asserting that muscles contract by inflating with air or fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- The reason for this is that neurons can only fire at a maximum of about 500 Hz but other theories of hearing did not explain for hearing sounds below about 5000 Hz. (wikipedia.org)
- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory aims to explain the physical adsorption of gas molecules on a solid surface and serves as the basis for an important analysis technique for the measurement of the specific surface area of materials. (wikipedia.org)
- Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system . (wikipedia.org)
- The point of social-scientific theories is, on this view, to explain actions by interpreting them so that they are intelligible. (encyclopedia.com)
- A few months ago, when I was writing an article on cities and metabolic theory for the latest issue of Seed , I spent several frustrating hours trying to explain the underlying logic of metabolic theory. (scienceblogs.com)
- This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. (britannica.com)
- If that's not helpful -- and it probably isn't, we'd have to go over a textbook if we wanted to explain developmental field theory -- here's a diagramatic metaphor. (scienceblogs.com)

- Secondly, there are diverse approaches to representation theory. (wikipedia.org)
- What Robert Keohane first called the "theory of hegemonic stability," joins A. F. K. Organski 's Power Transition Theory as the two dominant approaches to the realist school of thought. (wikipedia.org)
- Long Cycle Theory , espoused by George Modelski , and World Systems Theory , espoused by Immanuel Wallerstein , have emerged as the two dominant approaches to the systemic school of thought. (wikipedia.org)
- Complexity Theory implies approaches that focus on flatter, more flexible organizations, rather than top-down, command-and-control styles of management. (wikipedia.org)
- Another basic division in the development of monetary theory has been the development of microeconomic theory, where the control role of government is hardly alluded to, as contrasted with the macroeconomic approaches, where government and the control aspects of the economy are central. (encyclopedia.com)

- In particular, the evolution of Islamic political parties in Turkey since the early 1970s that culminated in the rise of the Justice and Development Party in the 2002 parliamentary elections exemplifies the dynamics highlighted by moderation theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Reversal theory has been developed primarily by British psychologist Dr. Michael J. Apter since its inception in the mid-1970s by Dr. Apter and psychiatrist Dr. Ken Smith. (wikipedia.org)
- Reversal Theory was first proposed in the mid-1970s by K.C.P. Smith and Michael Apter. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies in the 1970s by Reitman tried reviving the decay theory by accounting for certain confounds criticized by Keppel and Underwood. (wikipedia.org)

- The main form of computability studied in recursion theory was introduced by Turing (1936). (wikipedia.org)
- Closely related fields in theoretical computer science are analysis of algorithms and computability theory . (princeton.edu)
- In turn, imposing restrictions on the available resources is what distinguishes computational complexity from computability theory: the latter theory asks what kind of problems can be solved in principle algorithmically. (princeton.edu)

- In the very early twentieth century, comparison between lunar theory and observation was used in another test of gravitational theory, to test (and rule out) Simon Newcomb's suggestion that a well-known discrepancy in the motion of the perihelion of Mercury might be explained by a fractional adjustment of the power -2 in Newton's inverse square law of gravitation (the discrepancy was later successfully explained by the general theory of relativity). (wikipedia.org)
- In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, modern developments of lunar theory are being used in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris series of models of the Solar System, in conjunction with high-precision observations, to test the exactness of physical relationships associated with the general theory of relativity, including the strong equivalence principle, relativistic gravitation, geodetic precession, and the constancy of the gravitational constant. (wikipedia.org)
- In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. (wikipedia.org)

- The language-reality objection to bundle theory relates to the impact language has on understanding reality. (wikipedia.org)
- In ecology , r / K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring. (wikipedia.org)

- Classical examples of sociological traditions which deny or downplay the question of values are institutionalism , historical materialism (including Marxism), behaviorism , pragmatic-oriented theories, postmodern philosophy and various objectivist-oriented theories. (wikipedia.org)
- Social theory has its roots in both European and non-European philosophical and sociological thought, through thinkers such as: Confucius, Mozi, Saint Augustine. (wikipedia.org)
- Preference theory is a multidisciplinary (mainly sociological) theory developed by Catherine Hakim. (wikipedia.org)

- Coalescent theory seeks to estimate the expectation of this time period and its variance. (wikipedia.org)
- Social theory seeks to question why humans inhabit the world the way they do and how that came to be, looking at power relations, and social structures and norms. (wikipedia.org)
- Aside from judicial review, constitutional theory in general seeks to ask and answer the following questions: How should the Constitution be interpreted? (wikipedia.org)

- Chemtrail conspiracy theories began to circulate after the United States Air Force (USAF) published a 1996 report about weather modification. (wikipedia.org)
- In the early 2000s the USAF released an undated fact sheet that stated the conspiracy theories were a hoax fueled in part by citations to a 1996 strategy paper drafted within their Air University titled Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025 . (wikipedia.org)

- The general theory also often requires that the functions belong to some given function space: often, the space of square-integrable functions is studied, and Sobolev spaces appear often. (wikipedia.org)

- More generally, this suggests that there are situations where it might not be useful to model musical motion ("transformations" in the intuitive sense) using functions ("transformations" in the strict sense of Lewinnian theory). (wikipedia.org)
- Baker also notes that the writing style of the "iceberg theory" suggests that a story's narrative and nuanced complexities, complete with symbolism, operate under the surface of the story itself. (wikipedia.org)
- Volley theory suggests that groups of auditory neurons use phase-locking to represent subharmonic frequencies of one harmonic sound. (wikipedia.org)
- Generativity Theory suggests that creativity is a skill that can be learned, and specifies strategies that increase creativity and innovation: Challenging, Broadening, Surrounding and Capturing. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory suggests that if there is an increase in the price of a good, the owners of the factor of production specific to that good will profit in real terms. (wikipedia.org)

- The theory distinctively proposes that human experience is structurally organized into metamotivational domains, of which four have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
- Decay theory proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory proposes that large scale brain networks connect brain regions , including regions within frontal , parietal , temporal, and cingulate cortices, underlie the biological basis of human intelligence . (wikipedia.org)
- This theory proposes that greater general intelligence in individuals results from the greater communication efficiency between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , parietal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex , and specific temporal and parietal cortex regions. (wikipedia.org)

- It then followed from Landau theory why these two apparently disparate systems should have the same critical exponents, despite having different microscopic parameters. (wikipedia.org)
- More than two millennia later, in the latter half of the nineteenth century, the French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) and German physician and bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843 - 1910) were finally able to establish the theory based on microscopic observation and experimental evidence. (encyclopedia.com)

- Valence shell electron pair repulsion ( VSEPR ) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Another subject with strong mutual influence was projective geometry, where invariant theory was expected to play a major role in organizing the material. (wikipedia.org)
- Elementary sentence Elementary definition Elementary theory of the reals Mac Lane and Moerdijk, Sheaves in Geometry and Logic: A First Introduction to Topos Theory, page 4. (wikipedia.org)
- First, the applications of representation theory are diverse: in addition to its impact on algebra, representation theory: illuminates and generalizes Fourier analysis via harmonic analysis, is connected to geometry via invariant theory and the Erlangen program, has an impact in number theory via automorphic forms and the Langlands program. (wikipedia.org)
- As far as I can tell, the answer involves fractals, the geometry of blood vessels and a smidgen of chaos theory. (scienceblogs.com)

- One of the challenges of string theory is that the full theory does not have a satisfactory definition in all circumstances. (wikipedia.org)

- VSEPR theory is based on observable electron density rather than mathematical wave functions and hence unrelated to orbital hybridisation , although both address molecular shape. (wikipedia.org)

- A review of different variations in the theory can be found in McKenzie, Lionel (1976). (wikipedia.org)

- The older term for number theory is arithmetic. (wikipedia.org)
- This section introduces ordered sets by building upon the concepts of set theory, arithmetic, and binary relations. (wikipedia.org)

- citation needed] Notable proponents of the theory include Thomas Jefferson, Under this theory and in reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, Jefferson claimed the federal government overstepped its authority, and advocated nullification of the laws by the states. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the proponents of this theory have been Norman E. Sharpless, Ronald A. DePinho, Huber Warner, Alessandro Testori and others. (wikipedia.org)

- The theory formalizes this intuition, by introducing mathematical models of computation to study these problems and quantifying the amount of resources needed to solve them, such as time and storage. (princeton.edu)
- The theory also provides a foundation for new theories of computation for special data types, such as algebras of real numbers, which can be used in applications. (encyclopedia.com)

- Nevertheless, the archaeological community is divided over the extent to which theory pervades the discipline. (wikipedia.org)
- To the extent that a theory allows one to make predictions, it provides some measure of control over the social world. (encyclopedia.com)

- Besides the unification of disparate topics as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, or heat transport in solids, the canonical theory has been applied to solving the problems of traditional disciplines as statistical mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- theory evolved from the earlier crystal field theory, developed for crystalline solids by the U.S. physicist Hans Albrecht Bethe. (britannica.com)