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  • human Th2 cells
  • Using multiple approaches, we demonstrate that human Th2 cells are composed of two major subpopulations: a minority IL-5 + (IL-5 + , IL-4 + , IL-13 + ) and majority IL-5 − Th2 (IL-5 − , IL-4 + , IL-13 + ) population. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study we show a novel function of CRTH2 in mediating an inhibitory effect of PGD 2 on the apoptosis of human Th2 cells induced by cytokine deprivation. (jimmunol.org)
  • mice
  • Hi Immunonetters, The discrimination between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes was established from data about T cell clones derived from mice. (bio.net)
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • TFH cell development after immunization failed to occur in mice lacking B cells or CD154. (rupress.org)
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni , or in mice immunized with an extract of schistosome eggs, TFH cells comprise a major component of the Th cell response and express genes that would normally be considered markers of Th2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • We have generated Stat6-deficient mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of this transcription factor in mediating the biologic functions of IL-4. (nih.gov)
  • Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (jci.org)
  • Initial studies with CRTH2 knockout mice ( 13 ) suggested that CRTH2 might constrain Th2 cytokine production and promote Th1 cytokine production, but this is likely to be due to CRTH2 expression by Th1 cells in mice and the particular immunization procedures used. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635), we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1-/- mice infected with P. chabaudi. (nih.gov)
  • Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. (nih.gov)
  • Th2 cells become IL-12 responsive following adoptive transfer.A and B). CD4+Il4gfp+in vitro Th2 cells or naïve CD4 cells were transferred to Rag1-/-mice for 2 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • CD4+TCRβ+ cells were then sorted from spleens of recipient mice and treated with 10ng/mL IL-12 for 15 minutes (blue) (or untreated, red) and then stained for pSTAT4 by FACS. (nih.gov)
  • C-G). Naïve CD4+ T cells or in vitro Th2 cells (CD4+TCRβ+Il4gfp+Ifngyfp-Il17aFP635-) were transferred to Rag1-/-recipient mice for 14 days. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the role of IL-12 by transferring naïve or Il4gfp+ Th2 cells to Rag1-/-mice and blocking IL-12 prior to and after P. chabaudi infection (Fig 7C). (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have documented the presence of T H 9 cells in both humans and mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Specific ablation of Atg16l1 in Foxp3(+) Treg cells in mice demonstrated that autophagy directly promotes their survival and metabolic adaptation in the intestine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the study presented here, a stable cell surface marker expressed on Th2 cells, T1/ST2, has been used to assess the distribution of CD4(+)T1/ST2(+) T cells in different organs of healer and nonhealer strains of mice during the course of L. major infection. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • however, CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells could be enriched from the lymphoid organs of infected nonhealer but riot from healer strains of mice. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The highest frequency of CD4(+) T1/ST2(+)T cells was detected in the footpads of mice with nonhealing disease, showing that CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells home to the footpads. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • We have previously shown that Th2 T cells bearing the same T cell receptor (TCR) as the diabetogenic Th1 T cells invade islets in neonatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice but fail to cause disease. (rupress.org)
  • We have now found, to our great surprise, the same Th2 T cells that produced a harmless insulitis in neonatal NOD mice produced intense and generalized pancreatitis and insulitis associated with islet cell necrosis, abscess formation, and subsequent diabetes when transferred into immunocompromised NOD. (rupress.org)
  • Strongly polarized Th1 T cells transferred disease into NOD neonatal mice, while Th2 T cells did not, despite being activated and bearing the same TCR as the diabetogenic Th1 T cell population. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we attempt to evaluate directly this hypothesis by producing Th1 and Th2 T cells from the islet-reactive BDC2.5 TCR transgenic NOD mouse (( 20 )), and then transfer sequentially Th2 and then Th1 T cells into NOD recipients mice. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we report that while Th1-polarized T cells can transfer disease in neonatal NOD mice, something Th2-polarized T cell fail to do, both Th1- and Th2-polarized T cells can transfer disease in NOD. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the diabetic lesion created by Th2 cells was unique and quite unlike the lesion found in spontaneously diabetic BDC2.5 mice or Th1 T cell-induced diabetes in either neonates or NOD. (rupress.org)
  • Female BALB/c mice or mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice were immunized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA). (ovid.com)
  • LPS inhalation with OVA resulted in exacerbated airway infiltration, which was not evident in mast cell-deficient mice. (ovid.com)
  • Up-regulated expression of Th2- and/or eosinophil-attracting chemokines was observed in the lung of mice inhalated with LPS. (ovid.com)
  • vitro
  • In this study, the Th1 and Th2 type MBP-T cells (MBP-Th1 and -Th2) were polarized in vitro, and their effects on the local immune microenvironment and tissue repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) after adoptive immunization were investigated. (naver.com)
  • An involvement of mast cells has been suggested, as lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cytokine production from mast cells in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • adoptive
  • Using an adoptive transfer system, we assessed the roles of Th1, Th2, and Th0 cells in a mouse model of asthma and examined the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells. (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that MBP-Th2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects on the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of Th2 cells may alter the local microenvironment from one primarily populated by Th1 and M1 cells to another dominated by Th2, Treg, and M2 cells and is conducive for SCI repair. (naver.com)
  • lineages
  • The original Th1/Th2 dichotomy has expanded to include a minimum of four different CD4 T cell lineages, with the concept of neatly pigeonholed irreversibly differentiated lineages requiring some reassessment with recent findings of plasticity and intermediate phenotypes among various CD4 lineages ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • allergic
  • RMD also downregulated the serum levels of OVA-specific Th1- and Th2 -related antibodies, which were elevated in the food-allergic condition. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results indicate that antigen-specific Th1 cells may not protect or prevent Th2-mediated allergic disease, but rather may cause acute lung pathology. (jci.org)
  • The evidence, however, demonstrating that Th1 cells actually render salutary effects in allergic disease and asthma, is indirect. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hideaki Shirasaki, Etsuko Kanaizumi, Nobuhiko Seki, and Tetsuo Himi, "Correlation of Local FOXP3-Expressing T Cells and Th1-Th2 Balance in Perennial Allergic Nasal Mucosa," International Journal of Otolaryngology , vol. 2011, Article ID 259867, 6 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • distinct
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TFH cells constitute a distinct lineage. (rupress.org)
  • IL-5 + Th2 cells are phenotypically distinct and have epigenetic changes consistent with greater IL5p accessibility. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since the first description of Th1 and Th2 cells, a large body of data has established the basic paradigm of CD4 T cell lineage heterogeneity, with each lineage having distinct molecular, cellular, and functional properties ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • That Th2 cells caused a distinct but important disease in immune-compromised recipients has significant implications with regard to the potential use of Th2 cells as a therapeutic agent. (rupress.org)
  • One possible explanation for MBP-T immunization leading to conflicting results may be the different subtypes of T cells are responsible for distinct effects. (naver.com)
  • vivo
  • In vivo, high TSLP levels promote the development of a similar population of IL-4 neg IL-13 pos T cells that also express Gata3 , Il5 , and Il3 transcripts. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo, high TSLP levels acted directly on CD4 + T cells to induce the development of IL-13-SP and IL-4 + IL-13 + double-positive populations in lymph node. (pnas.org)
  • Stat6-deficient B cells do not produce IgE following in vivo immunization with anti-IgD. (nih.gov)
  • Th17
  • Administration of Th2 cell inhibitor abolished the increase in TEWL, IL-6, and TNF-α levels, whereas Th17 cell inhibitor reversed TEWL and decreased IL-17 level. (nii.ac.jp)
  • phenotype
  • On the other hand, induction of the T H 2 phenotype from naïve CD4 + T cells requires IL-4 binding of the functional IL-4 receptor and activation of STAT6. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-12 treatment of T H 2 cells expressing functional IL-12 receptors did not induce the conversion of these cells into the T H 1 phenotype if the cells were pretreated under T H 2 conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, T H 2 cells are resistant to T H 1 conversion, and decreased expression of IL-12Rβ2 is not necessary for the establishment of the T H 2 phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • Moreover, in preeclamptic patients, decreased percentages of Tc2 andTh2 cells and the increased ratios of Tc1/Tc2 were determined in both decidua andmaternal peripheral blood. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, the ratio of Th1/Th2 in peripheral blood alsoincreased. (mdpi.com)
  • These results using peripheral blood support the presence of a suppressive Th2 cell-associated immune response in symptomatic Indian kala-azar and point to a possible role for IL-4. (ajtmh.org)
  • CD4+CD25 high regulatory cells in human peripheral blood. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • These findings demonstrate Th2 lineage heterogeneity, in which the IL5 gene is regulated in a hierarchical manner relative to other Th2 genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • mucosal
  • Moreover, we also identify an unexpected role for autophagy in directly limiting mucosal TH2 cell expansion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • TH1 cells defend in opposition to intracellular organisms, but can also result in irritation and autoimmune ailments, whilst TH2 cells protect mucosal and epithelial surfaces, but can also result in allergy and asthma . (idhinhibitor.com)
  • Allergen
  • In this study the authors compared human blood DC with M phi and B cells for their ability to activate cloned rye grass allergen Lol p I specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells. (docphin.com)
  • helminths
  • Th2 cells: help for helminths. (rupress.org)
  • On the other hand, transcription factors like GATA-3 and STAT6 drive the generation of Th2 cells that produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and are necessary for inducing the humoral response to combat parasitic helminths (type 2 immunity) and isotype switching to IgG1 and IgE. (genome.jp)
  • whereas
  • GATA-3 and H3K4me 3 binding to the IL5 promoter ( IL5p ) was greater in IL-5 + relative to IL-5 − Th2 cells, whereas there was no difference in their binding to the IL4p and IL13p . (jimmunol.org)
  • Whereas the biological roles of T helper 1 (T H 1), T H 2, and T H 17 cells are reasonably well established, the functions of interleukin-9 (IL-9)-secreting T H 9 cells remains elusive. (sciencemag.org)
  • asthma
  • Because Th1 cells antagonize Th2 cell functions, it has been proposed that immune deviation toward Th1 can protect against asthma and allergies. (jci.org)
  • Persistent wheezing in children is predicted by development of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens ( 5 ), indicating that the development of an inappropriate adaptive Th2-polarized immune response to environmental antigens plays a critical role in the development of asthma. (jci.org)
  • regulatory T cel
  • Natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3. (springer.com)
  • Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease. (springer.com)
  • Maintenance of the Foxp3-dependent developmental program in mature regulatory T cells requires continued expression of Foxp3. (springer.com)
  • Wing K. Suri-Payer E. Rudin A. CD4+CD25+ -regulatory T cells from mouse to man. (springer.com)
  • Pacholczyk R. Kern J. Singh N. Iwashima M. Kraj P. Ignatowicz L. Nonself-antigens are the cognate specificities of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • pathogenic
  • Transcriptional analysis showed that Trim24 was required for many of the pathogenic properties of T H 2 cells and that IL-1-regulated signaling is compromised in Trim24 −/− cells. (pnas.org)
  • To identify previously unidentified putative targets in pathogenic T H 2 cells, we performed in silico analyses of recently published transcriptional data from a wide variety of pathogenic T H cells [Okoye IS, et al. (pnas.org)
  • indicate
  • These findings indicate that under certain conditions Th2 T cells may not produce a benign or protective insulitis but rather acute pathology and disease. (rupress.org)
  • chemokines
  • Selective depletion of CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung identified these cells as the critical cellular source for the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. (jimmunol.org)
  • STAT6
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation of cells leads to the activation of multiple signaling pathways, one of which involves Stat6. (nih.gov)
  • Genome-wide profiling of interleukin-4 and STAT6 transcription factor regulation of human Th2 cell programming. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of Novel STAT6-Regulated Proteins in Mouse B Cells by Comparative Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • immune system
  • In conclusion, I could say that the relevance of the Th1/Th2 discrimination depends on the scale at which you study the immune system: the model fits well to a global scale but the at the clonal scale the model is practically useless. (bio.net)
  • T cell survival and death, especially apoptosis, are believed to be important for lymphocyte homeostasis and self-tolerance in the immune system ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • allergy
  • This study identified putative transcriptional regulators in T-helper 2 (T H 2) cells with the aim of identifying previously unidentified targets to inhibit T H 2-mediated allergy. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic deletion of Trim24 (tripartite motif-containing 24) in T cells showed that Trim24 was essential for T H 2-mediated allergy. (pnas.org)
  • Although a variety of immune cells contribute to allergy, cytokine-secreting αβ + CD4 + T-helper 2 (T H 2) cells orchestrate the type-2-driven immune response in a large proportion of atopic asthmatics. (pnas.org)
  • production
  • RMD suppressed IL-4 and IL-10 production from splenocytes but not cells from mesenteric lymph nodes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mechanistically, TCR stimulation and responsiveness to IL-12 and IFNγ, but not type I IFN, was required for optimal IFNγ production by Th2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the Th2-mediated destruction of islet cells was mediated by local interleukin-10 (IL-10) production but not by IL-4. (rupress.org)
  • expression
  • However, it is not known what effect constitutive expression of the IL-12Rβ2 chain has on the development of T H 2 cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • D-F). Cytokine reporter expression in transferred cells in the spleen, with or without anti-IL-12 treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, it was possible that IL-12 was promoting IFNγ expression in Th2 cells following P. chabaudi infection. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 receptors discriminates between human regulatory and activated T cells. (springer.com)