• The balance between Th1/Th2 subsets determines the susceptibility to disease states, where the improper development of Th2 cells can lead to allergy, while an overactive Th1 response can lead to autoimmunity. (genome.jp)
  • Cell surface molecules that reliably mark Th1 or Th2 cells were also sought, and to date the chemokine receptors are probably the most convenient (although by no means ideal) markers of functional subsets. (rupress.org)
  • Adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells into nude or sublethally irradiated immunosuppressed mice before challenge resulted in bacterial clearance within 14 to 21 days. (tcd.ie)
  • Spleen cells from vaccinia-infected control mice displayed strong CD8+ cytolytic activity against gp160-transfected fibroblasts and fibroblasts pulsed with a peptide (P18) representing a CTL epitope of gp160. (pnas.org)
  • We found that nude mice, which are deficient in T cells, developed a persistent infection and failed to clear the bacteria after aerosol inoculation. (tcd.ie)
  • Recipients of CD4+ T cells cleared the bacteria from the lungs within 20 days of challenge, at which time B. pertussis-specific antibodies in the serum were undetectable. (tcd.ie)
  • They produce receptors that bind to and kill chronically infected cells, releasing the bacteria that were growing within the cell so they can be engulfed and killed by macrophages. (nutriforce.cn)
  • This includes the use of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice, model antigens like ovalbumin, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II tetramers presenting defined peptide sequences, which allows for the detection of T cells specifically recognizing that peptide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (jci.org)
  • 1 It remains unknown whether the scarcity of proliferative HIV-specific CD4 + T cells is due to dysfunction, 2 , 3 inappropriate apoptosis, 4 or is a result of cytopathic infection of these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 In particular, it is believed that effective CD8 + T-cell function in HIV-1 infection is reliant on CD4 + T-cell function. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 26 , 28 However, IL-2-producing CD4 + memory cells typically belong to the CCR7 + , CCR5 - central memory subset, 29 and therefore are not directly susceptible to infection by CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains in early infection. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Describe how NK cells are able to recognize and destroy infected cells and cancer cells lacking MHC-I molecules. (nutriforce.cn)
  • As acceptance of the Th1/Th2 paradigm increased among immunologists, so too has the effort to identify Th1- or Th2-associated genes or molecules. (rupress.org)
  • A) LN cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with collagen or with anti-CD3 mAb, and the level of proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. (nih.gov)
  • Recent evidence has shown that altering the frequency of a given T cell clone can impact the activation strength, kinetics, and memory formation of the resulting T cell response ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, individual TCR specificities may be predisposed toward different fates ( 6 ) and may also be regulated by temporal and anatomical antigen expression by the pathogen, factors that might significantly affect some clonal populations differently than the overall polyclonal T cell response ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recall response of CD4+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells from CD152−/− or CD152+/+ mice was induced by adding 1 µg/ml OVA323-339 and T cell-depleted APCs. (nih.gov)
  • On day 6 of recall response cells were analyzed in chemotaxis assays. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, if you focus your attention on global response and not on single cells, I think that it is possible to characterize either Th1 like response or Th2 like response. (bio.net)
  • The type of T-cell response generated (e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • Th1 or Th2) will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a type-1 response is needed for optimal cancer treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • Cancer cells, through mutation, may actually have mutations in some of the proteins involved in antigen presentation, and as such, evade an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crosslinking of CD152 together with CD3 and CD28 stimulation on activated Th1 cells increased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR7, which in turn enhanced cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, BDC2.5(+) cells recovered from diabetic NOD.scid mice, in comparison with those from neonate NOD mice, showed predominant IFN-gamma over IL-17 expression, indicating conversion of donor cells into Th1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Granzymes pass through the pores and activate the enzymes that lead to apoptosis, a programmed suicide of the infected cell. (nutriforce.cn)
  • Using an adoptive transfer system, we assessed the roles of Th1, Th2, and Th0 cells in a mouse model of asthma and examined the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells. (jci.org)
  • The Fab portion of the antibody binds to epitopes on the 'foreign' cell. (nutriforce.cn)
  • The NK cell then binds to the Fc portion of the antibody. (nutriforce.cn)
  • Figure 14.3.514.3.5 : Destruction of Virus-Infected Cells by NK Cells through Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC), Step-3. (nutriforce.cn)
  • However, this neat scheme had one troubling aspect: where do helper cells for antibody production fit in? (rupress.org)
  • T cell help for antibody production has long been considered a Th2 property ( 2 )( 3 ), although certain Ig class switching relies on IFN-γ. (rupress.org)
  • HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were used as a model for EC and synoviocytes were isolated from synovium from RA patients. (bmj.com)
  • C. Averages of the percentage of IL-17 or IFN-γ positive cells gated from the CD4+Tcr-β+ cells (n= 6-8 mice per group analyzed in independent experiments). (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we discuss the use of Salmonella as a model pathogen to explore the complex interaction of T cells with their inflammatory environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2001, Bui and Schreiber, 2007) RAG proteins are necessary for the recombination events necessary to produce TCRs and Igs, and as such RAG-2 deficient mice are incapable of producing functional T, B or NK cells. (wikipedia.org)