• The chloride salt is prepared by the reaction of triethylamine and an ethyl halide: Et3N + EtX → Et4N+X− This method works well for the preparation of tetraethylammonium iodide (where X = I). Most tetraethylammonium salts are prepared by salt metathesis reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An extensive study of the toxicology of tetraethylammonium chloride in mice, rats and dogs was published by Gruhzit and co-workers in 1948. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall reaction is: 2R1Br + 2KO2 → R1-O-O-R1 + 2KBr + O2 In common with tetraethylammonium chloride and tetraethylammonium iodide, TEAB has been used as a source of tetraethylammonium ions for numerous clinical and pharmacological studies, which are covered in more detail under the entry for tetraethylammonium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acute toxicity of TEAB is comparable to that of tetraethylammonium chloride and tetraethylammonium iodide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium Tetraethylammonium chloride Tetraethylammonium iodide D. N. Kevill and N. H. Cromwell (1961). (wikipedia.org)
  • The test item Tetraethylammonium chloride(CAS No.56-34-8) undergoes 75.30 % biodegradation after 14 days in the test condition. (europa.eu)
  • Defibrillation was achieved by intracoronary injection of tetraethylammonium chloride and electrical shock, even at temperatures as low as 21°C, where it could not be achieved by other means. (sciencemag.org)
  • If you know of a relevant reference for Tetraethylammonium chloride, please let us know . (tocris.com)
  • Do you know of a great paper that uses Tetraethylammonium chloride from Tocris? (tocris.com)
  • Have you used Tetraethylammonium chloride? (tocris.com)
  • Inhibition of tetraethylammonium chloride(TEA)-induced acetylcholine hyperactivity in rat tracheal segments by the compound. (nih.gov)
  • 2 have demonstrated that tetraethylammonium chloride is capable of relieving vasospasm in man by blocking the autonomic ganglia. (mdedge.com)
  • If there is some truth to the assumption that the acute or the exacerbative symptoms of multiple sclerosis contain the element of vasospasm, tetraethylammonium chloride may produce a modifying influence upon these acute symptoms in perhaps the same fashion as do the injections of histamine by Horton, Wagener, Aita, and Woltman. (mdedge.com)
  • In pursuance of this hypothesis tetraethylammonium chloride has been administered to a number of patients manifesting the acute and chronic symptoms of multiple sclerosis. (mdedge.com)
  • Voltage-dependent block of fast chloride channels from rat cortical neurons by external tetraethylammonium ion. (rupress.org)
  • channels block in tetraethylammonium chloride was exploited to assess changes in background 'leak' currents. (springer.com)
  • iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). (hindawi.com)
  • For example, the synthesis of tetraethylammonium perchlorate, a salt that has been useful as a supporting electrolyte for polarographic studies in non-aqueous solvents, is carried out by mixing the water-soluble salts tetraethylammonium bromide and sodium perchlorate in water, from which the water-insoluble tetraethylammonium perchlorate precipitates: Et4N+Br− + Na+[ClO4]− → Na+Br− + Et4N+[ClO4]− Other examples include the cyanide (Et4NCN), and trichlorostannate (Et4NSnCl3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C8H20N+Br−, often written as "Et4N+Br−" in the chemical literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-temperature phase of tetraethylammonium bromide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mild, chemoselective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides using o-iodoxybenzoic acid and tetraethylammonium bromide as catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1948). "Action of tetraethylammonium bromide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this case report is to present and compare the reactions of a patient with a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma) to the intravenous administration of histamine phosphate and of tetraethylammonium bromide. (annals.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium Bromide (TEAB), Teab, 71-91-0 manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Tetraethylammonium Bromide (TEAB) China Producer, Liquid Guanidine Hydrochloride, Zt- 30-FT Fire Retardant Chemicals and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • A merlinoite type zeolite with an enhanced Si/Al ratio (around 3.8) compared to known isostructural materials has been synthesised hydrothermally from a gel with Si/Al=5 in the presence of tetraethylammonium and K + cations. (rsc.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium (TEA) and amantadine are two organic cations that are secreted by the kidney. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. (uniprot.org)
  • 1. The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone, amitriptyline (AMI) and imipramine (IMI) in the mouse forced swimming test. (nih.gov)
  • ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective K + channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca 2+ -dependent K + channel inhibitor. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. The channel had a conductance of 210 pS in a 150 mM:150 mM K+ gradient, was highly selective for K+ over Na+, and was sensitive to block by external charybdotoxin or tetraethylammonium (TEA) and by internal Ba2+. (nih.gov)
  • C2H5)2S → (C2H5)2S=O TEAB has been used for the in situ preparation of tetraethylammonium superoxide from potassium superoxide for the conversion of primary alkyl halides to dialkyl peroxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium (TEA), (NEt+ 4) or (Et4N+) is a quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four ethyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is positively charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEA salts such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate and tetraethylammonium methylsulfonate are used in supercapacitors as organic electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate is used as a phase transfer catalyst in organic synthesis. (alfa.com)
  • Bhattacharyya, A. R. Nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide, modified nanoclay, and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate for application in solid-state supercapacitor. (alfa.com)
  • 10. A high voltage stable and non-toxic electrolyte for ultracapacitors which comprises 1.0 to 1.5 molar concentration of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in the mixture of gamma-butyrolactone in the range of 50 to 70% by weight percentage, and ethylmethyl carbonate in the range of 30 to 50% by weight percentage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Tetraethylammonium fluoride hydrate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • 6. The early effects of tetraethylammonium may be due to inhibition of the transient outward current. (mysciencework.com)
  • Approach and Results- In 74 white and 86 black subjects without known cardiovascular disease risk factors, forearm blood flow was measured using plethysmography at rest and during inhibition of NO with N G -monomethyl- l -arginine and of K + Ca channels (EDHF) with tetraethylammonium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition with tetraethylammonium was lower in blacks with bradykinin, but greater during exercise and with acetylcholine. (ahajournals.org)
  • TEAB is commercially available, but can be prepared by the reaction between tetraethylammonium hydroxide and hydrobromic acid: Et4N+HO− + HBr → Et4N+Br− + H2O Evaporation of the water and recrystallization from acetonitrile yields a crystalline sample of TEAB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxicity of TEAB is primarily due to the tetraethylammonium ion, which has been studied extensively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple effects of tetraethylammonium on N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor‐channels in mouse brain neurons in cell culture. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple effects of tetraethylammonium on N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor‐channels in mouse brain neurons in cell culture. (elsevier.com)
  • Three potassium currents, IM (blocked by 1 mM barium and by 30 microM bethanechol), IA (blocked by 2 mM 4-aminopyridine) and IK(Ca) fast (blocked by 100 microM cadmium and by 5 mM tetraethylammonium) were characterized in these neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tetraethylammonium was used to identify percentage blocking on potassium channel.The product shows relatively low blocking action on potassium channels. (tocris.com)
  • Tetraethylammonium potentiates the activity of muscarinic potassium channels in guinea-pig atrial myocytes. (pcom.edu)
  • The modulation of native muscarinic potassium channels (KACh) by tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied at 35 degrees C in cell-free patches from acutely dissociated guinea-pig atrial myocytes. (pcom.edu)
  • Wang, Desuo and Armstrong, David L., "Tetraethylammonium potentiates the activity of muscarinic potassium channels in guinea-pig atrial myocytes. (pcom.edu)
  • Tetraethylammonium hydrogen sulfate is an ion-pair chromatography (IPC) reagent suitable for anionic separation sorted by carbon chain length. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Tetraethylammonium hydrogen sulfate may be used as an ion pair reagent for the analysis of sulfonated aliphatic and aromatic surfactants in sewage sludge by ion-pair/supercritical fluid extraction and derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Effect of barium and tetraethylammonium on membrane circulation in frog retinal photoreceptors. (rupress.org)
  • The effects of barium and tetraethylammonium can be inhibited by high extracellular potassium, by high intensity light, and by 5 mM cobalt. (rupress.org)
  • A different manner of insufficiency of renal epithelial cell transport between the organic anion and cation, p‐aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium, respectively, was observed in the perfused kidney isolated from uranyl nitrate‐induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The apparent uptake rate constant from blood to cells of p‐aminohippurate was reduced with the progress of ARF and associated with the amount of this drug secreted, whereas the uptake rate constant of tetraethylammonium did not change until the late stage of ARF. (elsevier.com)
  • On the other hand, the secretion of tetraethylammonium from cells to lumen was impaired at first, and then the uptake from blood to cells was impaired. (elsevier.com)
  • Typically, the four ethyl groups surrounding the nitrogen are too small to facilitate efficient ion transfer between aqueous and organic phases, but tetraethylammonium salts have been found to be effective in a number of such applications, and these are exemplified under the headings of the individual salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been used as the source of tetraethylammonium ions in pharmacological and physiological studies, but is also used in organic chemical synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ionic liquid tetraethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TEATFSI) is synthesized as the supporting electrolyte in an all-organic redox flow battery system with acetonitrile as the solvent. (aalto.fi)
  • The principal chemical characteristic of tetraethylammonium salts is their ability to engage in processes involving phase-transfer, such as phase-transfer catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most tetraethylammonium salts are prepared by salt metathesis reactions. (readtiger.com)
  • Tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) and its longer chain derivatives have been used extensively to block currents through K-selective ion channels. (rupress.org)
  • Tetraethylammonium is occluded within the tridimensional small pore channels, forcing the K + and hence the Al content to diminish by 30-50% compared to conventional merlinoite-type zeolites. (rsc.org)
  • Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. (scielo.br)
  • The reduction in resting forearm blood flow was greater with N G -monomethyl- l -arginine ( P =0.019) and similar with tetraethylammonium in whites compared with blacks. (ahajournals.org)
  • The active tubular secretion was impaired faster than the reduction of glomerular filtration, and the tetraethylammonium secretion decreased at an earlier stage of ARF than p‐aminohippurate. (elsevier.com)
  • The mean residence time in renal epithelial cells of tetraethylammonium was prolonged with reduction of the amount to be secreted, while that of p‐aminohippurate remained unchanged. (elsevier.com)
  • 4. The early effects of tetraethylammonium were more marked at slow driving rates and were not affected by blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors using 1 mumol/l phentolamine and 1 mumol/l propranolol. (mysciencework.com)
  • 5. The early effects of tetraethylammonium were mimicked by 4-aminopyridine (0.5 mmol/l), and in the presence of 4-aminopyridine tetraethylammonium failed to induce further changes in action potential morphology. (mysciencework.com)
  • 7. The rapid onset and reversibility of these early effects suggest that tetraethylammonium may act from outside the cell membrane. (mysciencework.com)
  • The effective radius of the tetraethylammonium ion is reported as ~0.45 nm, which is comparable in size to that of the hydrated K+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Using conventional microelectrode techniques a biphasic effect of tetraethylammonium (5 mmol/l) on the configuration of action potentials recorded from isolated canine Purkinje fibres: action potentials were first shortened (early effect) and then lengthened (late effect) by tetraethylammonium. (mysciencework.com)
  • Niu et al (2008) Vasorelaxant effect of taurine is diminished by tetraethylammonium in rat isolated arteries. (tocris.com)
  • Biphasic effect of tetraethylammonium on canine purkinje fibre. (mysciencework.com)
  • 2. The early effect of tetraethylammonium also included lengthening of phase 1 duration and elevation of the plateau amplitude. (mysciencework.com)
  • additional details may be found in the entry for Tetraethylammonium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The literature dealing with the pharmacologically-related properties of tetraethylammonium is vast, and research continues. (wikipedia.org)