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  • Subdivision
  • Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence). (berkeley.edu)
  • evolution
  • DNA-sequence-based divergence time estimates are now widely employed to study the evolution of various lineages of animals, fungi and plants. (springer.com)
  • The ability to gain search images in both 2D and 3D for potential fossils gives paleobotanists a tool-virtual taphonomy-to improve our understanding of plant evolution and paleobiogeography. (pnas.org)
  • fossil
  • The earliest conifers in the fossil record date to the late Carboniferous ( Pennsylvanian ) period (about 300 million years ago), possibly arising from Cordaites , a genus of seed-bearing Gondwanan plants with cone-like fertile structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The division Pinophyta consists of just one class, Pinopsida, which includes both living and fossil taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • While more commonly applied in zoology, synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is well-suited to nondestructive study of the morphology and anatomy of both fossil and modern plants. (pnas.org)
  • There are many actual and potential uses of SRXTM for studying both fossil and extant plants. (pnas.org)
  • biomass
  • Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. (caltech.edu)
  • The relative distribution of the OH/OCH_3 substituent patterns on the phenolic products indicates the plant class of the biomass that was burned. (caltech.edu)
  • Nitrate leaching decreased with plant diversity and increased by a factor of two going from fine-scale to coarse-scale N. It was also related to a number of plant functional parameters, and was positively correlated with the biomass of late successional C 3 grasses ( Koeleria cristata (Lam. (springer.com)
  • fungi
  • The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) , which state (Article 16.1) that the names of higher taxa in plants (above the rank of family) are either formed from the name of an included family (usually the most common and/or representative), in this case Pinaceae (the pine family), or are descriptive. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Binkley D, Aber JD, Pastor J, Nadelhoffer KJ (1986) Nitrogen availability patterns in some Wisconsin forests: a comparison of resin bags and on site incubations. (springer.com)
  • range
  • These compounds range from C_8 to C_(31) and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. (caltech.edu)
  • areas
  • They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most notably the taiga of the Northern Hemisphere , but also in similar cool climates in mountains further south. (wikipedia.org)
  • appear
  • Conifers appear to be one of the taxa that benefited from the Permian-Triassic extinction event , and were the dominant land plants of the Mesozoic . (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • These authors had listed in detail the occurrence of all tropanes known at that time in their Table III in the systematic order of plant families according to the. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • strong
  • The generic name is derived from the Greek word αμυρων ( amyron ), which means "intensely scented" and refers to the strong odor of the resin . (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • An important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biondini ME (2008) Allometric scaling laws for water uptake by plant roots. (springer.com)