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  • Pathogens
  • The work on sanitation aims to develop microbial risk assessment models to gain a better understanding of how pathogens are transmitted to humans through their contact with water, feces, and contaminated surfaces. (stanford.edu)
  • Functional relationships will be established to describe the ecology of antimicrobial resistance under environmentally relevant conditions and to establish the effect of these management strategies and residual antibiotics on native and litter-associated microbial flora and on AR pathogens of importance to humans. (usda.gov)
  • Using a Needs, Gaps, and Opportunities Assessment, the research team evaluated the current status of Canadian research activities related to risk assessment of pathogens in food and water. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • While much is known about the health risks of fecal-oral exposure, little is known about those resulting from the aerosolization of pathogens from fecal material. (usda.gov)
  • Future risks of pathogens and chemicals could therefore be very different from those of today. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Risks from many pathogens and particulate and particle-associated contaminants could increase significantly. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Future risks of pathogens and chemicals could therefore be very different than today, so it is important that we begin to assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens and chemicals and the subsequent health impacts in the near term and in the future. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The proposed piezoelectric microcantilevers with antibodies specific to the target pathogens immobilized at the cantilever tip will measure the presence of pathogens with femtogram (a small fraction of a cell's mass) sensitivity in source water. (epa.gov)
  • Binding of target pathogens is detected by monitoring the resonance frequency shift. (epa.gov)
  • It is anticipated that as a result of the proposed study, ultrasensitive, rapid, specific, multiple pathogen quantification of drinking water will be achieved using arrays of highly piezoelectric PMN-PT unimorph microcantilevers of less than 10pm in length with better than 10 g/Hz sensitivity coupled with antibodies specific to the target pathogens immobilized at the cantilever tip. (epa.gov)
  • STATA 12 was used for descriptive analyses of farmers' exposure and risk practices, and also to determine risk factors for soil and irrigation water contamination, while the WHO QMRA model and @Risk 6 were used to model farmers' infection risk to pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For both long and short time-scales, we demonstrate that epidemic-potential-preserving trade-offs have implications for epidemic dynamics: less infectious, more persistent pathogens cause epidemics to progress more slowly than more infectious, less persistent (labile) pathogens, even when the overall risk is the same. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A better understanding of persistence-infectivity trade-offs and associated dynamics can improve our ecological understanding of environmentally transmitted pathogens, as well as our risk assessment and disease control strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ecology
  • We conclude that, while the nanoliter reaction volumes, rapid thermocycling and one-size-fits-all reaction conditions of MFQPCR necessitates more stringent primer selection criteria than is commonly applied in soil microbial ecology, the ability to quantify up to 96 targets in 96 samples makes MFQPCR a valuable tool for monitoring shifts in functional community abundances. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inactivation
  • All conventional heat processing calculations are based on as few as two equations: a "primary" equation which corresponds to the first order kinetic of microbial inactivation represented by a log-linear survival curve, and a "secondary" equation which describes the effect of the heating temperature on the thermal resistance of target spores. (go.jp)
  • quantify
  • WP1 - Epidemiology aimed at improving the understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the context of housed broiler production and quantify the role of risk factors in different regions of the EU. (vetinst.no)
  • pathways
  • The molecular reaction of living cells, organisms or microbial communities to external stressors leads from an initializing event via alterations in signalling pathways to a decision on whether the system can cope adequately with the stress or not. (ufz.de)
  • mitigation
  • Applications towards mitigation strategies, research directions and decision-making were considered for each of the reviewed risk assessment activities. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • soil
  • The results showed that although irrigation water was highly contaminated (5.6 Log E. coli /100 ml), exposure to farm soil (2.3 Log E. coli /g) was found to be the key risk pathway due to soil-to-mouth events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • research
  • Furthermore, combining these approaches with qualitative and quantitative research methods for public and eco-health holds an even greater promise for holistic research. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Governments and international agencies are increasingly relying on risk assessments for decision-making in public health protection, international trade, resource allocation, and prioritization of research efforts, among others. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • However, risk assessment in microbial food and water safety, at the time of the project, was a relatively new discipline, and thus remained poorly understood and under-utilized by risk managers, the scientific community, and research funding agencies. (cwn-rce.ca)
  • Future research should explore the influence of demographic and ethno-economic factors on water quality during microbial risk assessments in urban Africa. (iwaponline.com)
  • Likewise, a link between H. pylori infection and gastric carcinoma has been well established by more than two decades of intensive research and, although the precise mechanism of tumor induction remains unknown, it is possible to reduce the risk of gastric cancer by diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori -induced gastritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then developed recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage any adverse increases in risks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These increases in exposure can, however, be managed for the most part through targeted research and policy changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • advances
  • Significant advances in the field of microbial and chemical source tracking (MST or CST) provide access to a variety of analytical tools, beyond traditional culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in the identification and apportionment of pollution sources adversely impacting water quality and of public health concern. (asmscience.org)
  • health
  • Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. (environmental-expert.com)
  • adequately
  • The financial necessity of implementing rate adjustments to adequately recover costs and maintain financial targets is balanced with (and sometimes pitted against) these important community priorities. (environmental-expert.com)
  • studies
  • Risk assessment was used throughout development to identify potentially high risk formulation and process variables and to determine which studies were necessary to increase our knowledge. (docplayer.net)
  • Notably, the studies were conducted by using traditional cultivation-based techniques or molecular techniques that target a sub-set of the intestinal microbiota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods
  • However, risk could be indirectly ascertained by developing methods to separately monitor labile and persistent subpopulations. (biomedcentral.com)