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  • EPSPs
  • Second, during learning-related enhancement of synaptic efficacy, does facilitation of late EPSPs in a burst contribute to enhanced activation of the motor neuron? (jneurosci.org)
  • Using paired recordings from synaptically coupled RBs and AIIs, we found that a voltage-gated Na conductance in AII amacrines accelerated EPSPs arising from RB synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • EPSPs also could be amplified by the Na conductance when AIIs were hyperpolarized below resting membrane potential, thereby increasing the availability of Na channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hyperpolarizing current suppressed IPSPs and enhanced EPSPs by moving the membrane potential toward the IPSP equilibrium potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • The responses to electrical stimulation of the LGN, where EPSPs and IPSPs could be distinguished easily by virtue of their characteristic latencies and shapes, were used to set the current injection to the appropriate level to view the two types of synaptic potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • cell membrane
  • The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Robert Hooke 's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory , Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many refuted the existence of a cell membrane still towards the end of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid bilayer hypothesis, proposed in 1925 by Gorter and Grendel, created speculation to the description of the cell membrane bilayer structure based on crystallographic studies and soap bubble observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model , it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • depression
  • Thus, synaptic depression increased the dynamic range of the sensorimotor synapse and can, in principle, have a profound effect on information processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is manifested as increased postsynaptic small-conductance calcium-activated potassium SK2 channel function and increased presynaptic spontaneous vesicle release, both of which likely contribute to synaptic depression and increased long-term depression (LTD). Overall, we are suggesting that subtle but insidious calcium-mediated pathogenic mechanisms can exist before amyloid and tau pathology and are a proximal contributor to synaptic signaling dysfunction in AD. (jneurosci.org)
  • vivo
  • The visual system of the blowfly Calliphora vicina is a good model system to study synaptic transmission in vivo during sensory stimulation. (wiley.com)
  • physiological
  • Because of the difficulty of mathematical treatments of this type of activity, much remains unknown about the relationship between the physiological properties of synaptic interactions and macroscopic gamma oscillations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • weights
  • These results demonstrate that the Simple or Complex nature of V1 RFs does not rely on the diversity of Complex-like components received by the cell from its synaptic afferents but on the imbalance between the weights of the Simple-like and Complex-like synaptic contributions. (jneurosci.org)
  • oscillation
  • When the macroscopic oscillation is far from the bifurcation, shunting promotes the gamma oscillations and the PRF becomes flatter as the reversal potential of the synapse increases, indicating the insensitivity of gamma oscillations to perturbations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • frequency
  • In subsequent data analysis, we determined action potential phase-locking profiles with respect to background conductance, average firing rate, and frequency of the sinusoidal component. (jneurosci.org)
  • C ) Action potential firing recovers close to baseline frequency after leptin washout. (jci.org)
  • terminals
  • Although most of our understanding of K+ channels is based on somatic recordings, there is good evidence that these channels are present in synaptic terminals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • weak
  • In our deterministic parameter regime, a limit cycle solution cannot emerge through a singular Hopf bifurcation, but such a limit cycle can nevertheless arise as a stochastic effect, as a consequence of weak synaptic noise in a regime of strong timescale separation ( \(\varepsilon \rightarrow 0\) ) between the slow and fast variables of the model. (springer.com)
  • hippocampal
  • Using electrophysiological recordings in young 3xTg-AD and nontransgenic (NonTg) hippocampal slices, we show that increased RyR-evoked calcium release in 3xTg-AD mice "normalizes" an altered synaptic transmission system operating under a shifted homeostatic state that is not present in NonTg mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Leptin inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices but failed to inhibit synaptic responses in slices from leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. (jci.org)
  • conductance
  • In particular, higher average spiking rates promoted bandpass profiles, and the high-conductance state promoted phase-locking at frequencies well above what would be predicted from changes in the membrane time constant. (jneurosci.org)
  • parameters
  • All these experiment parameters are set up in the file protocol.hoc based on the value of the variable Experiment. (yale.edu)
  • cellular
  • In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion , ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall , the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx , and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Because AD is increasingly recognized as a "synaptic disease," calcium-mediated signaling alterations may serve as a proximal trigger for the synaptic degradation driving the cognitive loss in AD. (jneurosci.org)
  • voltage-dependent, calcium-selective ion channels at the down stroke of the action potential (tail current). (mcgill.ca)
  • reversal potential
  • This current, often referred to as a 'leak' or 'background' current, has characteristics of a nonselective cation current - it is sodium-dependent and has a reversal potential close to 0 mV. (elifesciences.org)
  • excitation
  • The synchronous activity propagation persists, even when the local excitation is removed, since it derives from the synaptic weight matrix. (frontiersin.org)
  • effects
  • We studied the effects of changing the pyloric cycle period on this reciprocally inhibitory subnetwork in three sets of experiments. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some of these effects can be somewhat counterintuitive, as noise, instead of being a nuisance, in some settings actually plays a constructive role in signal detection. (springer.com)