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  • presynaptic
  • These results provide evidence that in contrast to the characteristics of airway parasympathetic neurons reported in other species, including human, the electrophysiological and synaptic properties, and anatomical characteristics of mouse lower airway ganglionic neurons, are less associated with integration of presynaptic input. (physiology.org)
  • We recorded extracellularly from an identified motion-sensitive neuron while simultaneously measuring and controlling the membrane potential of individual elements of its presynaptic input ensemble. (wiley.com)
  • Here we investigate, using intracellular recordings, how synaptic input correlations from shared presynaptic neurons translate into membrane potential and spike-output correlations. (jneurosci.org)
  • neurons
  • Ganglionic parasympathetic neurons located in the airways in several species, including humans, have anatomical and electrophysiological properties that limit transmission of preganglionic synaptic input. (physiology.org)
  • Although the active and passive (electrophysiological) membrane properties of airway ganglionic neurons have been reported for several mammalian species ( 13 ), including humans ( 8 ), no studies have focused on mice, a species commonly used in airway asthma and allergy studies ( 23 ). (physiology.org)
  • Bulbar respiratory neurons display rhythmic fluctuations of membrane potential in synchrony with the respiratory cycle. (springer.com)
  • However, since these neurons in tissue slices usually lack the spontaneous rhythmic modulation in membrane potential, the identification of the neuron type based upon the spontaneous patterns of firing and membrane potential fluctuations is yet uncertain. (springer.com)
  • The present study was aimed at elucidating the possible synaptic and non-synaptic mechanisms by which the periodic fluctuations of membrane potential are shaped in bulbar respiratory neurons of the ventral respiratory group. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate directly that excitation is correlated with inhibition thereby partially canceling each other and resulting in weak membrane potential and spiking correlations between neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, neurons are highly polarized cells with often long axons, extensively branched dendritic trees and many synaptic contacts. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The dendritic trees of neurons are structurally and functionally complex integrative units receiving thousands of synaptic inputs that have excitatory and inhibitory, fast and slow, and electrical and biochemical effects. (nih.gov)
  • inputs
  • The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in time and how it will respond to similar inputs in the future. (nih.gov)
  • Regulates
  • Here, we show that synaptic activity, one of the most important inducers of neurite growth, transcriptionally regulates the expression of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3 and rate‐limiting enzymes of glycolysis, resulting in enhanced glucose uptake and metabolism that is partly used for lipid synthesis. (embopress.org)
  • vivo
  • The visual system of the blowfly Calliphora vicina is a good model system to study synaptic transmission in vivo during sensory stimulation. (wiley.com)
  • Neuron
  • Moreover, it is hard to know at what timing any specific ionic conductance becomes active in the respiratory cycle change in membrane potential observed in different types of the respiratory neuron. (springer.com)
  • Excitatory
  • P.M. Headley and S. Grillner, Excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission: the evidence for a physiological function, TiPS Special Report 1991 , Elsevier, Cambridge, p30(1991). (springer.com)
  • biological
  • The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. (uky.edu)
  • transmission
  • Y. Kuroda, K. Kobayashi, Y. Ohguchi, and M. Ogawa, Blocking of synaptic transmission by a monoclonal antibody against the PC-12 cell surface antigen. (springer.com)
  • We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. (uky.edu)
  • rats
  • However, we have shown that at least one process, conversion by methyltransferase Iodine of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, remained enhanced twofold in neural membranes of rats killed while anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • preparations
  • The property of solutions of Triton X-114 to separate into detergent-rich and detergent-poor phases at 30 degrees C has been exploited to investigate the identities of the aminopeptidases in synaptic membrane preparations from pig striatum. (biochemj.org)
  • potential
  • A late, slow, hyperpolarizing synaptic potential in response to orthodromic stimulation became apparent at low temperature. (jneurosci.org)
  • According to the conventional view of signal processing, graded changes of membrane potential at the dendrite are converted into a sequence of spikes. (wiley.com)
  • We propose that the control of synaptic transfer of a dynamically complex signal by graded changes in membrane potential and spikes is useful to enable a temporally precise coupling of spikes in response to sudden transitions in stimulus intensity. (wiley.com)
  • Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K + on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. (uky.edu)
  • endogenous
  • Extraction of membrane fragments with Triton X-100 solubilized less than 20% of the kinase activity and left the major part of the endogenous substrates in the insoluble fraction. (biochemj.org)
  • mechanisms
  • At present, we know little about of the molecular mechanisms of these phenomena, therefore, we have a lot of molecula incognita to be exploired, most of which are localized on and/or around the nerve cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • properties
  • Saria A, Mayer N, Lembeck F, Pabst M (1980) Regional distribution and biochemical properties of 125 I-Tyr 8 -substance P binding sites in synaptic vesicles. (springer.com)
  • D.W. Richter, D. Ballantyne and S. Mifflin, Interaction between postsynaptic activities and membrane properties in medullary respiratory neurones, in: "Neurogenesis of Central Respiratory Rhythm," A.L. Bianchi and M. Denavit-Saubie, ed. (springer.com)
  • D.W. Richter, J. Champagnat and S. Mifflin, Membrane properties involved in respiratory rhythm generation, in: "Neurobiology of the Control of Breathing," C. von Euler and H. Lagercrantz, ed. (springer.com)
  • The effects of aging and of different amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) on the properties of purified synaptosomal plasma and mitochondrial membranes were studied using different fluorescent dyes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Voltage-gated channels might influence the measurement of 'passive' membrane properties and, reciprocally, passive membrane properties might affect the activation of voltage-gated channels in dendrites. (nih.gov)
  • metabolism
  • These data suggest that clathrin-dependent retrieval of SV membranes may at least in part depend on phosphoinositide metabolism. (rupress.org)
  • activity
  • When titrated with an antiserum to aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), synaptic membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 revealed that this enzyme apparently comprises no more than 5% of the activity releasing tyrosine from [Leu]enkephalin. (biochemj.org)
  • Aminopeptidase activity, endopeptidase-24.11 and peptidyl dipeptidase A partitioned predominantly into the detergent-rich phase when kidney microvillar membranes were so treated. (biochemj.org)
  • However, only 5.5% of synaptic membrane aminopeptidase activity partitioned into this phase, although the other peptidases behaved predictably. (biochemj.org)
  • Although amastatin was the most potent (IC50 = 5 × 10(−7) M) it failed to discriminate between pure kidney aminopeptidase N, the total activity of solubilized synaptic membranes and that in the Triton X-114-rich phase. (biochemj.org)
  • thereby
  • Given the rapid turnover of phosphoinositides, it seems likely that PI(4,5)P 2 synthesis is under tight regulatory control ( Cremona and De Camilli, 2001 ), thereby linking it to the exo-endocytotic cycling of SV membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Specific
  • Nakata Y, Kusaka Y, Segawa T, Yajima H, Kitagawa K (1978) Substance P: Regional distribution and specific binding to synaptic membranes in rabbit central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Cholesterol modulates the membrane-disordering effects of beta-amyloid peptides in the hippocampus: specific changes in Alzheimer's disease. (semanticscholar.org)