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  • cleft
  • Once in the synaptic cleft, glutamate can bind and activate post-synaptic glutamatergic protein receptors such as NMDA and AMPA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various intra-cellular transport mechanisms help AMPA receptors migrate to the post-synaptic cleft from the entire cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was thus reasonable to hypothesize that the transmitter substance (acetylcholine) was contained in such vesicles, which by a secretory mechanism would release their contents into the synaptic cleft (vesicle hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The timing it takes for neurotransmitter to be released into the synaptic cleft and then be recycled back to the presynaptic cell to be reused is not currently well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentiation
  • Magleby KL and Zengel J.E. (1976b) Long term changes in augmentation, potentiation, and depression of transmitter release as a function of repeated synaptic activity at the frog neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zengel J.E., Magleby K.L., Horn J.P., McAfee D.A., and Yarowsky P.J. (1980) Facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation of synaptic transmission at the superior cervical ganglion of the rabbit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although homosynaptic and heterosynaptic depression can lead to long-term depression and/or potentiation, this particular case is a short-term example of how homosynaptic depression causes synaptic fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • IEGs mediate long-term potentiation (LTP), a process that enhances synaptic connections and consolidates memories. (qiagen.com)
  • As reviewed in this chapter, studies of long-term potentiation have shown that integrins are important for stabilizing activity-induced increases in synaptic strength and excitability. (springer.com)
  • Bliss TVP, Lômo T. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. (springer.com)
  • Muller D, Lynch G. Long-term potentiation differentially affects two components of synaptic responses in hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • The functional plasticity encompasses the alterations of synaptic transmission and efficacy in response to neural activity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and homeostatic plasticity [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • receptors
  • The receptors on the post-synaptic side also play a role, both in their numbers, composition, and physical orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When glutamate and post-synaptic AMPA receptors interact, the post-synaptic cell experiences a temporary depolarizing current, known as an EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some research indicates there are two mechanistically distinct forms of homeostatic plasticity involving trafficking or translation of AMPA receptors at post-synapse of synaptic connections: Local synthesis of AMPA receptors: Local area AMPA receptor synthesis takes place within a time scale of 4 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism is used to alter the quantity of post synaptic AMPA receptors over short time periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two molecular mechanisms for synaptic plasticity (researched by the Eric Kandel laboratories) involve the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulus
  • They were able to show a burst of tetanic (100 Hz) stimulus on perforant path fibres led to a dramatic and long-lasting augmentation in the post-synaptic response of cells onto which these fibres synapse in the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This in turn increases post-synaptic excitation by a given pre-synaptic stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • investigated whether the regulated spine entry of a late-phase-related somatically synthesized plasticity-related protein, Vesl-1S, works as a synaptic tag. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vesl-1S protein was carried from the soma to every dendrite and recruited into spines by synaptic activation in an input-specific manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results provide long-sought evidence for the input-specific capturing of a plasticity-related protein as postulated by the synaptic tagging hypothesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • D. Okada, F. Ozawa, K. Inokuchi, Input-specific spine entry of soma-derived Vesl-1S protein conforms to synaptic tagging. (sciencemag.org)
  • increases
  • The likelihood of quanta being released is assigned a probability that increases when the action potential arrives at synaptic terminals, and progressively decreases to a lower, resting value. (wikipedia.org)
  • During repetitive stimulation at 23 °C components of depression dominate synaptic release, whereas at 33-38 °C synaptic strength increases due to a shift towards components of enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  • The missing link was the demonstration that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is actually contained in synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Würzburg scientists have now found out that this gene is crucial for autophagy: It controls the degradation of the synaptic vesicles that contain the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and transport the excitation from the nerve to the muscles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Genes
  • The Human Synaptic Plasticity RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes central to synaptic alterations during learning and memory. (qiagen.com)
  • Although synaptic plasticity in neural circuits is orchestrated by an ocean of genes, molecules, and proteins, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent studies, it has been shown that numerous molecules and genes are involved in the complex regulatory process of synaptic plasticity, through which the function of nervous system is coordinated and maintained. (hindawi.com)
  • plasticity-related
  • More importantly, the miRNA-mediated regulation of synaptic plasticity is not only responsible for synapse development and function but also involved in the pathophysiology of plasticity-related diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Understanding of the way in which miRNAs contribute to synaptic plasticity provides rational clues in establishing the novel therapeutic strategy for plasticity-related diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we aim to analyze the current data regarding the function of individual miRNAs in synaptic plasticity and, in particular, to understand their regulatory role in synapse morphological and functional plasticity, as well as their implications in plasticity-related neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • proteins
  • Synaptic vesicles are relatively simple because only a limited number of proteins fit into a sphere of 40 nm diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins do not share a characteristic that would make them identifiable as synaptic vesicle proteins, and little is known about how these proteins are specifically deposited into synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many but not all of the known synaptic vesicle proteins interact with non-vesicular proteins and are linked to specific functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using behavioral and pharmacological selection criteria, genetic screens have identified many key proteins required for synaptic transmission ( Brenner, 1974 ). (wormbook.org)
  • With few exceptions synaptic proteins identified in C. elegans are highly conserved offering an opportunity to study universally important proteins in a relatively simple system. (wormbook.org)
  • This provides an opportunity to study the functional consequences of eliminating individual synaptic proteins in an intact organism. (wormbook.org)
  • terminals
  • By changing the F-actin cytoskeletal structure of dendritic spines, spines are lengthened and the chance that they make synaptic contacts with the axonal terminals of the presynaptic cell is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for synaptic plasticity research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • axonal
  • The structural plasticity covers the changes of synaptic morphology and number in adapting to activity-induced neural network variation, including dendritic spine modification, axonal sprouting, and new synaptic formation [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • transmission
  • The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. (plos.org)
  • One of the great advantages of C. elegans over other organisms is that most mutants affecting synaptic transmission are viable and can be propagated by self-fertilization. (wormbook.org)
  • C. elegans mutants defective in synaptic transmission often exhibit a locomotory phenotype resulting from disrupted signaling at the NMJs. (wormbook.org)
  • voltage
  • A synaptic transistor has a traditional immediate response whose amount of current that passes between the source and drain contacts varies with voltage applied to the gate electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantal release results in the inconsistent strength and timing of a response, and this is cause for synaptic voltage noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The existence and observations of synaptic fatigue are accepted universally, although the exact mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are not completely understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • relies
  • This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. (nih.gov)
  • temporal
  • The two ways that synaptic potentials can add up to potentially form an action potential are spatial summation and temporal summation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the uncertainty involved in the exact timing of neurotransmitter release is a cause for synaptic temporal noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • strength
  • In the brain, synaptic strength is modified by its internal activity through inherently defined rules, yet little is known about such spontaneously occurring plasticity. (plos.org)
  • onset
  • Synaptic pruning , which includes both axon and dendrite completely decaying and dying off, is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals , including humans . (wikipedia.org)