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  • postsynaptic
  • Within minutes of the teaching stimulus, the amount of a key protein required for sending information, synaptophysin, increased on the presynaptic side of the synapse, and there was a parallel increase in GluR1, the postsynaptic receptor that received the information. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plasticity
  • Plasticity describes the ability of nerve cells, synapses and cerebral areas to adapt their characteristics according to use. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Aplysia sensorimotor synapse is a key site of plasticity for several simple forms of learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Plasticity of this synapse has been extensively studied, albeit primarily with individual action potentials elicited at low frequencies. (jneurosci.org)
  • Virtually all of the previous studies that analyzed the mechanisms of plasticity of the sensorimotor connections probed the synapse with a single presynaptic action potential or action potentials elicited at low frequency (e.g., interstimulus intervals between 1 and 600 sec). (jneurosci.org)
  • Nevertheless, none of these studies focused on the plasticity of sensorimotor synapses during such a burst of activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, information transfer at sensorimotor synapses can be modulated differentially by two forms of plasticity that produced different degrees of facilitation of the depressed EPSPs during a burst. (jneurosci.org)
  • neural networks
  • The simulation of neural networks is of medical interest as our brain is not at all hardwired: After a stroke, after the amputation of limbs, but also when learning, remembering and for many other processes, new synapses form while defunct ones disappear. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Our results widen the application domain of SpiNNaker and help guide its development, showing that further optimizations such as synapse-centric network representation are necessary to enable real-time simulation of large biological neural networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tools for simulating neural networks fall into two categories: simulation software and neuromorphic hardware. (frontiersin.org)
  • mimic
  • The potential gains from neuromorphic computing have led to intense research in devices that can mimic the functionality of a synapse ( 5 - 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • biological
  • The ambitious mission of the DARPA sponsored SyNAPSE (Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics) project, launched in early 2009, is to "investigate innovative approaches that enable revolutionary advances in neuromorphic electronic devices that are scalable to biological levels. (pearltrees.com)
  • proteins
  • examined the clustering of proteins at synapses in culture as they underwent simulated learning. (sciencemag.org)
  • Progress has been relatively tentative yet the emergence of truly high-performance computing and the development of coarse-grained simulation now offers us the hope of accurately predicting thermodynamic parameters and of simulating not merely a handful of proteins but larger, longer simulations comprising thousands of protein molecules and the cellular scale structures they form. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nerve cells
  • Using this method, he simulated a network of one billion nerve cells - more than in a rat's brain - as part of his dissertation. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Synapses serve as the 'bridges' that transmit signals between nerve cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nerve cells interact primarily through stereotyped point events called action potentials or spikes, which are transmitted unidirectionally with delay from sending to receiving cell through contacts known as chemical synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nerve cells communicate with one another through specialized cell-cell junctions called synapses, and changes in how efficiently information is transferred across these junctions are believed to underlie memory. (sciencemag.org)
  • computation
  • Analog computation constrains the number of distinct ion-channel populations that can be simulated-unlike digital computation, which simply takes longer to run bigger simulations. (stanford.edu)
  • simulation
  • The predicted responses of a simulated second-order cell follow surprisingly reliably the simulated light stimuli when compared with a simulation of functionally identical photoreceptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is particularly suitable for the simulation and analysis of the otherwise inaccessible details of MHC-peptide interaction and, on a larger scale, the simulation of the immune synapse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig. 3 JJ synapse SPICE simulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Similarly
  • Similarly, to simulate channels that depend on binding of a neurotransmitter, one must additionally account for changing ligand concentration to calculate a . (jneurosci.org)
  • significantly
  • We observed that Ca2+ transients from back-propagating action potentials were significantly reduced during simultaneous activation of individual nearby GABAergic synapses. (yale.edu)
  • time
  • The most energy is needed the first time a synapse is traversed. (brightsurf.com)
  • Deep learning algorithms are very powerful but they rely on processors to calculate and simulate the electrical states and store them somewhere else, which is inefficient in terms of energy and time," said Yoeri van de Burgt, former postdoctoral scholar in the Salleo lab and lead author of the paper. (brightsurf.com)
  • magnetic
  • D ) Fraunhofer diffraction of the same JJ synapse in varying magnetic ordered states. (sciencemag.org)
  • B ) Electric pulse energy required to magnetically order the JJ synapse in a 20-mT applied magnetic field (red squares) and SFQ pulse energy (blue circles) versus JJ synapse cross-sectional area. (sciencemag.org)