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  • electron energy loss
  • In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech- niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. (springer.com)
  • gravitational potent
  • Consequently, the surface will push back against any curvature in much the same way as a ball pushed uphill will push back to minimize its gravitational potential energy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's geoid is a calculated surface of equal gravitational potential energy and represents the shape the sea surface would be if the ocean were not in motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • curves
  • The mathematical definition of surface area in the presence of curved surfaces is considerably more involved than the definition of arc length of one-dimensional curves, or of the surface area for polyhedra (i.e., objects with flat polygonal faces ), for which the surface area is the sum of the areas of its faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the subtleties of surface area, as compared to arc length of curves, is that surface area cannot be defined simply as the limit of areas of polyhedral shapes approximating a given smooth surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only irreducible curves with zero self intersection number are the fibers of the Hirzebruch surface (considered as a fiber bundle over P1). (wikipedia.org)
  • With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. (springer.com)
  • displaystyle
  • The Hirzebruch surface Σn is the P1 bundle over P1 associated to the sheaf O ( 0 ) + O ( − n ) . {\displaystyle O(0)+O(-n). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface charge density is defined as the amount of electric charge, q, that is present on a surface of given area, A:[full citation needed] σ = q A {\displaystyle \sigma ={\frac {q}{A}}} According to Gauss's law, a conductor at equilibrium carrying an applied current has no charge on its interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the entirety of the charge of the conductor resides on the surface, and can be expressed by the equation: σ = E ϵ 0 {\displaystyle \sigma =E\epsilon _{0}} where E is the electric field caused by the charge on the conductor and ϵ 0 {\displaystyle \epsilon _{0}} is the permittivity of the free space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osserman proved that a complete minimal surface in R 3 {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{3}} with total curvature − 4 π {\displaystyle -4\pi } is either the catenoid or the Enneper surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enneper-like surfaces are known to exist in R n {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}} for n up to 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • semiconductor
  • Since the transport of minority carriers determines the behavior of the p-n junctions that are ubiquitous in semiconductor devices, surface photovoltage data can be very helpful in understanding their performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the name suggests, SPV measurements involve monitoring the potential of a semiconductor surface while generating electron-hole pairs with a light source. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a light source creates electron-hole pairs deep within the semiconductor, they must diffuse through the bulk before reaching the surface depletion region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the photogenerated majority carriers will also diffuse towards the surface but their number as a fraction of the thermally generated majority carrier density in a moderately doped semiconductor will be too small to create a measurable photovoltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deeper in the semiconductor that carrier generation occurs, the fewer the number of minority carriers that will reach the surface and the smaller the photovoltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Patches of highly conserved amino acid residues on the surface of a protein molecular structure are good candidates for functional sites . (proteopedia.org)
  • An interfacial potential is thus defined as a charge located at the common boundary between two phases (for example, an amino acid such as glutamate on the surface of a protein can have its side chain carboxylic acid deprotonated in environments with pH greater than 4.1 to produce a charged amino acid at the surface, which would create an interfacial potential). (wikipedia.org)
  • adheres
  • Every assay surface adheres to strict manufacturing standards, process controls, and compliance testing to support consistent, reproducible performance. (corning.com)
  • processes
  • The processes that form planation surfaces are labelled collectively planation and are exogenic (chiefly erosion). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these there are planation surfaces proposed to be formed by cryoplanation, marine processes, areal glacial erosion and salt weathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term planation surface is often preferred over others because some more specific planation surface types and processes remain controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface Micromachining can be seen in action in the following MEMS products: Surface Micromachined Accelerometers 3D Flexible Multichannel Neural Probe Array Nanoelectromechanical relays Bulk micromachining Magnetic Assembly MEMS Fabrication Processes Bustillo, J.M. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different processes which can lead to a surface being charged, including adsorption of ions, protonation/deprotonation, and the application of an external electric field. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Runoff that occurs on the ground surface before reaching a channel is also called a nonpoint source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media This occurs when the rate of rainfall on a surface exceeds the rate at which water can infiltrate the ground, and any depression storage has already been filled. (wikipedia.org)
  • This more commonly occurs in arid and semi-arid regions, where rainfall intensities are high and the soil infiltration capacity is reduced because of surface sealing, or in paved areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in intensity of the Raman signal for adsorbates on particular surfaces occurs because of an enhancement in the electric field provided by the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Planation surfaces are planated regardless of bedrock structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the disposition of some so-called planation surfaces may better reflect the easiness of erosion into different lithologies or structures and may therefore not fit any uplift scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Bulk micromachining, where a silicon substrate (wafer) is selectively etched to produce structures, surface micromachining builds microstructures by deposition and etching of different structural layers on top of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this book "surface science" is understood in a broad sense, taken to include two-dimensional structures such as thin films and superlattices. (springer.com)
  • submarine
  • Modern naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: anti-surface warfare (ASUW), anti-air warfare (AAW) and anti-submarine warfare (ASW). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern naval warfare is divided into four operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare, submarine warfare and information warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern surface warfare dates from the mid-20th century, when surface, air, and submarine warfare components were blended together as a tactical unit to achieve strategic objectives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface Warfare (SuW) is conducted by a surface ship which includes Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW), Anti-Air Warfare (AAW), Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Naval Gun Fire Support (NGFS), Riverine Operations, Mine Warfare, and Electronic Warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second half of the 20th century, the importance of naval surface power was reduced as air and submarine warfare platforms demonstrated their capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 21st century, it has been clearly demonstrated that a modern navy must be composed of all three platforms (surface, submarine, and air) to be effective in projecting naval power and maintaining blue water sea control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the lateral surface of a cube will be the area of four faces: a ⋅ a ⋅ 4 = 4a2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous solutions universally contain positive and negative ions (cations and anions, respectively), which interact with partial charges on the surface, adsorbing to and thus ionizing the surface and creating a net surface charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, as the concentration of hydrogen ions changes, so does the surface charge of the particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erosion
  • Erosion surface Summit accordance Migoń, Piotr (2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • The African Erosion Surface: A Continental-Scale Synthesis of Geomorphology, Tectonics, and Environmental Change over the Past 180 Million Years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to causing water erosion and pollution, surface runoff in urban areas is a primary cause of urban flooding which can result in property damage, damp and mold in basements, and street flooding. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Surface charge is the electrical potential difference between the inner and outer surface of the dispersed phase in a colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface is marginally trapped if the outer expansion θ+ = 0 and the inner expansion θ− ≤ 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the original poster: much of the 'higher' cognitive abilities are thought to be handled by the cerebral cortex, which is the outer surface of the brain. (bio.net)
  • area
  • Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length , or of energy per unit area . (wikipedia.org)
  • The two are equivalent, but when referring to energy per unit of area, it is common to use the term surface energy , which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids . (wikipedia.org)
  • This creates some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimal area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since any curvature in the surface shape results in greater area, a higher energy will also result. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This definition of surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double integration . (wikipedia.org)
  • A general definition of surface area was sought by Henri Lebesgue and Hermann Minkowski at the turn of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their work led to the development of geometric measure theory , which studies various notions of surface area for irregular objects of any dimension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface areas of flat polygonal shapes must agree with their geometrically defined area . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since surface area is a geometric notion, areas of congruent surfaces must be the same and the area must depend only on the shape of the surface, but not on its position and orientation in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that surface area is invariant under the group of Euclidean motions . (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties uniquely characterize surface area for a wide class of geometric surfaces called piecewise smooth . (wikipedia.org)
  • The area of the whole surface is then obtained by adding together the areas of the pieces, using additivity of surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various approaches to a general definition of surface area were developed in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century by Henri Lebesgue and Hermann Minkowski . (wikipedia.org)
  • While for piecewise smooth surfaces there is a unique natural notion of surface area, if a surface is very irregular, or rough, then it may not be possible to assign an area to it at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensions of the notion of area which partially fulfill its function and may be defined even for very badly irregular surfaces are studied in geometric measure theory . (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the substrates can also be much larger than a silicon wafer, and surface micromachining is used to produce TFTs on large area glass substrates for flat panel displays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral surface of an object is the area of all the sides of the object, excluding the area of its base and top. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a cube, the lateral surface area would be the area of four sides. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a right circular cylinder of radius r and height h, the lateral area is the area of the side surface of the cylinder: A = 2πrh. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a pyramid, the lateral surface area is the sum of the areas of all of the triangular faces but excluding the area of the base. (wikipedia.org)
  • This equation is only strictly accurate for conductors with infinitely large area, but it provides a good approximation if E is measured at the surface of the conductor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are spacelike surfaces (topological spheres, tubes, etc.) with restricted bounds, their area tending to decrease locally along any possible future direction and with a dual definition with respect to the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • Surface charge causes a particle to emit an electric field, which causes particle repulsion and attraction, affecting many colloidal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atomic geometry and electronic structure of surface atoms are responsible for the chemical and electronic properties of surfaces. (springer.com)
  • In: Mainsah E., Greenwood J.A., Chetwynd D.G. (eds) Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces. (springer.com)
  • cruisers
  • In smaller surface action groups (i.e. a single or a few task elements, such as a lone Aegis-equipped destroyer or cruisers on patrol), the same combatant commander may be responsible for managing all three areas as part of his duty in carrying out his vessel's mission, while larger formations such as a carrier strike group may have an individual commander in charge of each separate warfare element. (wikipedia.org)
  • exceeds
  • If the number of adsorbed cations exceeds the number of adsorbed anions, the surface would have a net positive electric charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical bond
  • The chemical theory applies only for species that have formed a chemical bond with the surface, so it cannot explain the observed signal enhancement in all cases, whereas the electromagnetic theory can apply even in those cases where the specimen is physisorbed only to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: The Nature of the Surface Chemical Bond. (springer.com)
  • Vector
  • However, when discussing causal horizons, trapped null surfaces are defined as only null vector fields giving rise to null surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • and this is apparent in the mean curvature vector, which is: Hɑ= −θ+k−ɑ − θ−k+ɑ The surface is trapped if both the null expansions θ± are negative, signifying that the mean curvature vector is timelike and future directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • wavelength
  • The surface is illuminated with light whose wavelength is scanned using a monochromator so as to vary the absorption depth of the photons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light incident on the surface can excite a variety of phenomena in the surface, yet the complexity of this situation can be minimized by surfaces with features much smaller than the wavelength of the light, as only the dipolar contribution will be recognized by the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • The main formula can be specialized to different classes of surfaces, giving, in particular, formulas for areas of graphs z = f ( x , y ) and surfaces of revolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, surface lifts are most often found on beginner slopes and very small ski areas . (wikipedia.org)
  • Level basin irrigation has historically been used in small areas having level surfaces that are surrounded by earth banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Surface lifts have two advantages over aerial lifts: they can be exited before the lift reaches the top, and they can often continue operating in wind conditions that are too strong for a chairlift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Planation surfaces are often thought to form at distinct base levels with sequences of them representing uplift events. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surfaces of semiconductors are often depletion regions (or space charge regions) where a built-in electric field due to defects has swept out mobile charge carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solution's pH can also greatly affect surface charge because functional groups present on the surface of particles can often contain oxygen or nitrogen, two atoms which can be protonated or deprotonated to become charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • A related term trapped null surface is often used interchangeably. (wikipedia.org)
  • tablet
  • If you live in the European Union and have been hoping that Microsoft would be selling its forthcoming Surface RT tablet in your country or one nearby, rejoice. (thenextweb.com)
  • A report published by Nikkei, and brought to our attention by MarketWatch indicates that the Surface RT tablet could be slated for sale in Japan. (thenextweb.com)
  • measurements
  • Surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements are a widely used method to determine the minority carrier diffusion length of semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface photovoltage measurements are performed by placing a wafer or sheet film of a semiconducting material on a ground electrode and positioning a kelvin probe a small distance above the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Western naval career advancement for unrestricted line officers also follow this model: a career line officer in a command-oriented track will specialize, train, and be billeted into distinct surface, naval aviation, or subsurface warfare posts. (wikipedia.org)
  • existence
  • Rufus Ritchie, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory 's Health Sciences Research Division, predicted the existence of the surface plasmon. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Dissociation of the surface chemical group is another possible mechanism leading to surface charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Raman signal is then further magnified by the surface due to the same mechanism that excited the incident light, resulting in a greater increase in the total output. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Surface irrigation is defined as the group of application techniques where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The depth of water applied to any point in the field is a function of the opportunity time, the length of time for which water is present on the soil surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed of water movement is determined by many factors such as slope, surface roughness and furrow shape but most importantly by the inflow rate and soil infiltration rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the soil is saturated and the depression storage filled, and rain continues to fall, the rainfall will immediately produce surface runoff. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urbanization increases surface runoff by creating more impervious surfaces such as pavement and buildings that do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to the aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tend
  • Although easily deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into a spherical shape by the imbalance in cohesive forces of the surface layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • ionic
  • Binding capacity is increased to approximately 400 to 500 ng IgG/cm 2 , as compared to our medium binding surface, because ionic interactions require that a smaller portion of the molecule be in contact with the surface to obtain stable immobilization. (corning.com)
  • Corning high binding surface is primarily hydrophobic with intermittent carboxyl groups capable of ionic interactions with positively charged groups on biomolecules. (corning.com)
  • collective
  • In collective bargaining, surface bargaining is a strategy in which one of the parties "merely goes through the motions," with no intention of reaching an agreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reneging on agreements already reached during the collective bargaining process, raising new issues late in the negotiations, or failing to follow generally accepted procedures for collective bargaining may also be seen as signs of surface bargaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based upon the "totality" of a party's actions during collective bargaining, surface bargaining may be found if there was a purposeful effort to avoid or frustrate mutual agreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • The change in surface potential upon illumination is therefore a measure of the ability of minority carriers to reach the surface, namely the minority carrier diffusion length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keeping the attack surface as small as possible is a basic security measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The satellites then measure the distance between their orbit altitude and the surface of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words it is impossible to measure a surface without applying a filter to the measurand. (springer.com)
  • This site, NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis, provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. (carleton.edu)
  • theory
  • The electromagnetic theory proposes the excitation of localized surface plasmons , while the chemical theory proposes the formation of charge-transfer complexes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes
  • The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This net charge results in a surface potential [L], which causes the surface to be surrounded by a cloud of counter-ions, which extends from the surface into the solution, and also generally results in repulsion between particles. (wikipedia.org)