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  • CpGs
  • Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. (mdpi.com)
  • At a higher cost, whole-genome tiling arrays featuring 2.1 million probes can be used to provide qualitative calls on the methylation of genes or loci but without achieving individual methylation measures on single CpGs. (ahajournals.org)
  • proteins
  • These areas are enriched in H3K9 methylation and marked by the presence of structural proteins such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1), which contribute to maintain high levels of condensation that play mainly structural roles in the organization of chromosomes. (hindawi.com)
  • In general, DNA methylation affects gene expression in two ways: (i) directly, by altering the binding sites of transcription factors, or (ii) indirectly, via recruitment of proteins that recognize and bind to the methylated DNA and in turn modulate gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • Histones are globular proteins that can be posttranslationally modified at specific amino acid residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • DNMT1
  • In contrast, DNMT1, the most prevalent methyltransferase in mammals, ensures the maintenance of methylation tags onto new DNA strands during replication. (novusbio.com)
  • Once methylation marks have been established, DNMT1 maintains those marks through cell division. (altorahealth.com)
  • polymerase
  • Qualitative methods such as bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction have been developed and eventually adapted to produce semiquantitative calls. (ahajournals.org)
  • TORC1-dependent sumoylation of Rpc82 promotes RNA polymerase III assembly and activity. (uio.no)
  • stable
  • DNA methylation is mitotically stable and can be transmitted through cell division and, in some loci identified in animal experiments, transgenerationally. (ahajournals.org)
  • functional
  • However, recent work has identified regions up to 2 kb from the islands (ie, on the island edges), termed CpG island shores , that have variable methylation and are the most enriched with functional CpG sites. (ahajournals.org)