Loading...
  • PIAS4
  • C) Western blots show the SUMO modification of PML or Sp100 in transgenic cells induced (+) or not (−) to express eYFP or eYFP.PIAS4 wild-type or catalytically inactive mutant proteins for 24 h. (nih.gov)
  • D) Confocal images show PML-NBs in transgenic cells induced to express eYFP or eYFP.PIAS4 wild-type or catalytically inactive mutant proteins. (nih.gov)
  • E) Box-and-whisker chart shows the number of PML-NBs per nuclei in transgenic cells induced (+DOX) for 24 h or not (−DOX) to express eYFP or eYFP.PIAS4 wild-type or catalytically inactive mutant proteins. (nih.gov)
  • EYFP.PIAS4 protein levels increased substantially with time, without considerable alteration to endogenous PIAS4 expression (Fig. 3C and D). As noted in other studies, however, high levels of ectopic PIAS4 had detrimental cellular effects (66, 68). (nih.gov)
  • Gene
  • Estrogen acts via classical receptor-mediated, non-classical, and non-ligand-mediated genomic (nuclear) and non-genomic (extranuclear) pathways to control mechanisms of gene expression, protein modifications and signaling to influence cellular functions (Figure 1 ) ( 13 - 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This gene encodes a very large RAN-binding protein that immunolocalizes to the nuclear pore complex. (nih.gov)
  • motility
  • These agents can decrease glucose production by the liver (metformin), stimulate insulin secretion (sulfonylureas and meglitinides), retard glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (-glycosidase inhibitors), slow intestinal motility (amylin), reduce insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones (TZDs)), or replace gastrointestinal peptides known to be active in glucose metabolism (GLP-1 analogs or dipeptidyl peptase IV inhibitors). (hindawi.com)
  • Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. (frontiersin.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • SUMO modification of long PDE4 isoforms serves to augment their activation by PKA phosphorylation and repress their inhibition by ERK phosphorylation. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • It is well established that global cellular morphology, as modulated by the three cytoskeletal networks: actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules, is regulated by a variety of accessory proteins whose activities are dependent on their phosphorylation by the Rho-kinases. (diff.org)
  • vitro
  • The enrichment is attributed to a Deltex2 interacting protein, Jmjd1c, whose activity is directly inhibited by Deltex2 and whose expression is required for MyoD expression in vivo and in vitro. (stanford.edu)
  • Sp100
  • PML NBs are dynamic structures, which harbor a few permanently (PML, Sp100, and SUMO) and numerous transiently residing proteins depending on different conditions (i.e., transformation, stress, interferon (IFN) treatment, and viral infections). (frontiersin.org)
  • receptors
  • The corepressor complex constitutes corepressor proteins, such as nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and transducin -like protein 1 (TBL1). (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to RTKs, Ras can also be activated by other signaling molecules including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), calcium influx and the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutation
  • 13-15 MEK inhibitors failed demonstrate substantial benefits in phase II trials among patients whose tumors were not genotyped for Ras mutation 13-15 In a recent study among lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor KRAS mutation, MEK inhibitor in combination with chemotherapy led to improved progression free survival but not overall survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • catalytic
  • We have identified a single SUMO site within a consensus tetrapeptide motif, PsiKXE (where Psi represents a hydrophobic residue), which lies in the catalytic unit of these enzymes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Functions
  • This might be due to different isoform-specific functions among Ras proteins as well as the ability of mutant KRAS to confer stem-like properties in cancer cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bovine sperm contain hundreds of different proteins, and most of their functions are unknown, but it is believed that they are involved in different phases of fertilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has since been discovered that the ROCK kinases actively phosphorylate a large cohort of actin-binding proteins and intermediate filament proteins to modulate their functions. (diff.org)
  • functional
  • Interestingly, functional studies have shown that apart from its role as a pro-apoptotic protein, FLASH is also involved in control of cell cycle progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulates
  • Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Washington University School of Medicine have identified a key to eye development - a protein that regulates how the light-sensing nerve cells in the retina form. (innovations-report.com)
  • downstream
  • 2-4 GTP binding leads to a conformational change in Ras and enables it to interact with a number of downstream effector proteins ( Fig. 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These proteins are known for their role in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, which is achieved through modulating the activity of their downstream effector molecules. (diff.org)
  • effectors
  • The Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2 ) proteins were the first discovered Rho effectors that were primarily established as players in RhoA-mediated stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly. (diff.org)