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  • volcanic
  • Furthermore, because scenarios exist in which O2 can form abiotically in the absence of volcanic activity, a detection of transient aerosols that can be linked to volcanism, along with a detection of O2, would be a more robust biosignature than O2 alone. (arxiv.org)
  • Longterm variations in solar output, the depletion of ozone, changes in volcanic dust aerosols, and the increases in Green House Gases all contribute to "Climate Change" and influence the ability of the Earth to protect and provide for its inhabitants. (usask.ca)
  • climate
  • As my colleagues and I compared the basic assumptions of climate models with my results we were very surprised, because only one of twelve models considers the role of transition metal ions in the formation of sulfate", says the scientist, who is now working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA. (mpg.de)
  • The magnitude of direct and indirect radiative forcing of aerosols since preindustrial times is a large uncertainty in climate models, which has been attributed largely to uncertainties in the preindustrial environment. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • We explore scenarios in which the amount of precursors and the size of the aerosol are varied to assess their interactions with the climate system. (zenodo.org)
  • Although the direct effect (whereby aerosols scatter and absorb solar and thermal infrared radiation) has a large perturbing influence on the radiation budget, the indirect effect (whereby aerosols modify the microphysical and hence the radiative properties and amounts of clouds) poses a greater challenge to climate modellers. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • interactions
  • HCCT 2010 (Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010) - A ground-based integrated study of chemical-aerosol-cloud interactions at the Schmücke Mountain in the Thuringian Forest in September/October 2010. (mpg.de)
  • oxidation
  • Harris' measurements showed that sulfate in clouds forms mostly through the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) by oxygen (O 2 ). (mpg.de)
  • Model-aided analysis of the observations suggests that 33-50 % of sulfate in the MBL is formed via oxidation by hypohalous acids (HOX = HOBr + HOCl), a production mechanism typically excluded in large-scale models due to uncertainties in the reaction rates, which are due mainly to uncertainties in reactive halogen concentrations. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Based on the estimated fraction of sulfate formed via HOX oxidation, we further estimate that daily-averaged HOX mixing ratios on the order of 0.01-0.1 parts per trillion (ppt = pmol/mol) in the remote MBL during spring and summer are sufficient to explain the observations. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • increases
  • For a fixed salt loading, Nd increases linearly with modest increases in sulphate and smoke masses, but significant nonlinearities are observed at higher non-sea-salt mass loadings. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • compounds
  • An aerosol that consists of compounds of sulphur formed by the interaction of sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide with other compounds in the atmosphere. (oup.com)
  • The net result of the chemical reactions is the formation of sulfates --- compounds of sulfur and oxygen. (noaa.gov)
  • In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • anthropogenic
  • We find that a complicated mix of natural and anthropogenic sources with different vertical signatures is responsible for sulfate concentrations in the Arctic. (edu.au)
  • Because salt spray over the oceans is the overwhelmingly most common form of particulate in the atmosphere, anthropogenic aerosols-those made by human activities-currently account for about 10 percent of the total mass of aerosols in our atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursors for these aerosols-i.e. the gases from which they originate-may have an anthropogenic origin (from fossil fuel or coal combustion) and a natural biogenic origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle size
  • Aerosol particle size has an important role in modulating the energy budget. (zenodo.org)
  • A prediction of aerosol size requires a much more complex representation and assumptions about the delivery mechanism beyond the scope of this study, so we explore the response when particle size is prescribed. (zenodo.org)
  • Each metered dose of the aerosol delivers through the oral adapter 0.08 mg isoproterenol sulfate of appropriate particle size (the majority less than 5μ). (drugs.com)
  • ratios
  • With increasing aerosol optical thickness during dust events, most common during summer, the nLw spectra were lowered between 412 and 510 nm, decreasing nLw (λ)/ nLw (555) band ratios and resulting in artificially high chlorophyll a estimates. (uri.edu)
  • Increasing sulfate optical thickness corresponded to decreases of the bio‐optical band ratios because of the increase at 555 nm, which also biased the chlorophyll a estimates high. (uri.edu)
  • decrease
  • We demonstrate that the rapid increase and gradual decrease in sulfate aerosol loading associated with these eruptions may be detectable in transit transmission spectra with future large-aperture telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and European Extremely-Large Telescope (E-ELT) for a planetary system at a distance of 10 pc, assuming an Earth-like atmosphere, bulk composition, and size. (arxiv.org)
  • species
  • The influence of two dominant aerosol species on satellite ocean color retrievals is examined off the U.S. East Coast in the western Sargasso subtropical gyre. (uri.edu)
  • precipitation
  • This is because aerosols undergo chemical and physical changes while in the atmosphere, notably within clouds, and are removed largely by precipitation. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • absorb
  • Sulfate aerosols are --- that is, they readily absorb water in the atmosphere, even when the relative humidity is as low as 60 or 70 percent. (noaa.gov)
  • thus
  • A detection of transient aerosols, if linked to volcanism, could thus aid in habitability evaluations of the exoplanet. (arxiv.org)
  • explanation
  • The explanation for this difference is supported by the observation that most (90%) of an aerosol dose is deposited in the mouth and pharynx and is swallowed. (drugs.com)
  • contributor
  • West Asia (non-Arctic Russia and Kazakhstan) is the largest contributor to Arctic sulfate in surface air in winter, reflecting a southward extension of the Arctic front over that region. (edu.au)
  • atmosphere
  • A rogue nation or corporation or really rich person or large volcano could release large amounts of sulfate aerosols into the upper atmosphere causing global cooling by many degrees leading to a mass extinction. (osnews.com)