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  • serine
  • Cysteine is synthesized from serine through different pathways in different organism groups. (genome.jp)
  • Previous data suggest the existence of a dynamically interacting module in the chloroplast stroma consisting of cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3), O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase B (OASTL-B), 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins A/B (2-CysPrx) and serine acetyltransferase 2;1 (SERAT2;1). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • genes
  • Included in the large shared response to H 2 O 2 and NO was the induction of genes encoding iron-sulfur cluster repair functions including iron acquisition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism in S. clavuligerus lacking pSCL4* may differ from that of the wild type strain, given the absence of sulfur metabolism genes located either in pSCL4 or at the right end of the chromosome, which led to levels of dithiolopyrrolones (holomycin, N-propionylholothin) and acetylhomocysteine thiolactone (citiolone) higher than those of the wild type strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While various peptide transporters known in Salmonella are well studied, very little is known about the carbon starvation (cst) genes, cstA and yjiY, which are also predicted to be involved in peptide metabolism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We investigated the role of these genes in the metabolism and pathogenesis of Salmonella and demonstrated for the first time that cst genes actually participate in transport of specific peptides in Salmonella. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, cst genes not only contribute to the metabolism of Salmonella but also influence its virulence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In accordance with the results of the phylogenetic studies, in which mainly aerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria were detected, genes typical for central metabolism of aerobes were found. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • metabolic
  • In the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in elucidating how metabolism is altered in cancer cells, with the goal of identifying cancer-associated metabolic dependencies that can be exploited for cancer therapy ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, since most of the metabolic reactions dealing with carbon and energy metabolism occur within the cytoplasm, the periplasmic reactions as well as transport reactions between the environment, periplasm and cytoplasm were discarded. (springer.com)
  • Peptide metabolism forms an important part of the metabolic network of Salmonella and to acquire these peptides the pathogen possesses a number of peptide transporters. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • folate metabolism
  • Since this cycle is so fundamental to other biochemical cycles, including trans-sulphuration and folate metabolism, it can't change the vitamin B6, folic acid and cobalamin into the active forms necessary for the methylation cycles to work. (ei-resource.org)
  • Title: Association study between genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism and gastric cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population: A case-control study. (nih.gov)
  • abiotic stress
  • Moreover the significance of sulfur metabolism in biotic and abiotic stress responses, in food security and quality, and in relation to interactions with global change factors is discussed in detail. (springer.com)
  • jejuni
  • Szymanski and Gaynor, 2012 ), this review specifically summarizes our increasing knowledge about the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of C. jejuni and its impact on the virulence and colonization process of this important pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • energy metabolism
  • o Methylation is essential in the making of melatonin (the 'sleep' hormone), adrenaline (the fight-or-flight hormone), acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter), creatine (for muscle energy metabolism), carnitine (involved in fat burning in mitochondria), and choline (fat mobilization and cell membrane fluidity). (anabolicminds.com)
  • physiological
  • Sulfur Atom in its Bound State Is a Unique Element Involved in Physiological Functions in Mammals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More recently, this definition was expanded to include sulfur-containing molecules, which are formed in physiological, non-oxidative conditions [ 7 , 8 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This gene encodes an enzyme that plays a major role in polyamine metabolism and is important for the salvage of both adenine and methionine. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and glutamate-cysteine ligase activity . (genecards.org)
  • molecules
  • Also, to apply the RAF algorithm to E. coli metabolism, the network has to be expressed in terms of molecules-reactions-catalysts and, when possible, having the catalyst of each reaction expressed in terms of the cofactors present in the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction. (springer.com)
  • Thus, metal ions, iron-sulfur centers, as well as organic molecules such as flavins or quinones were considered as cofactors. (springer.com)
  • choline
  • Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbial choline metabolism byproduct that is processed in the liver and excreted into circulation, is associated with increased atherosclerotic lesion formation and cardiovascular disease risk. (readbyqxmd.com)