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  • reagents
  • Crosslinking reagents are used in a variety of techniques to assist in determining partners and domains of protein interactions, three-dimensional structures of proteins, and molecular associations in cell membranes. (thermofisher.com)
  • As the biotin binding pocket in avidin / streptavidin is buried beneath the protein surface, biotinylation reagents possessing a longer linker are desirable, as they enable the biotin molecule to be more accessible to binding avidin/streptavidin/Neutravidin protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty Acid Synt
  • In both fatty acid synthesis and polyketide synthesis these CoA carriers will be exchanged for ACP before they are incorporated into the growing molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Enzymatic biotinylation is most often carried out by fusing the protein of interest at its N-terminus, C-terminus or at an internal loop to a 15 amino acid peptide, termed AviTag or Acceptor Peptide (AP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic biotinylation can be carried out in vitro but BirA also reacts specifically with its target peptide inside mammalian and bacterial cells and at the cell surface, while other cellular proteins are not modified. (wikipedia.org)
  • purification
  • The stationary phase is first loaded into a column with mobile phase containing a variety of biomolecules from DNA to proteins (depending on the purification experiment). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the protein becomes denatured or if the copper ions are lost in the purification process, the opalescent blue color disappears and the solution becomes a dull grayish color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the strong affinity between biotin and streptavidin, the purification of biotinylated proteins has been a widely used approach to identify protein-protein interactions and post-translational events such as ubiquitylation in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysine
  • The generalized reaction is shown below: Shown on the right is the three-dimensional structure of the Lysine 2,3-aminomutase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Experiments with different lengths of otherwise identical crosslinkers can reveal the molecular distance between particular functional groups in the secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure. (thermofisher.com)
  • concentrations
  • Reported values are the highest concentrations at which the carrier proteins appeared fully dissolved. (thermofisher.com)
  • The most commonly used organic solvents for this purpose are dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF), which are compatible with most proteins at low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • By also applying a dilution series of a purified protein with known concentrations, a more precise estimate of the quantity can be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affinity chromatography is an excellent choice for the first step in purifying a protein or nucleic acid from a crude mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • We also obtained a few cDNA clones that encode novel stress-induced proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Both encode large glycosylated proteins consisting of around 3400 amino acids and a molecular weight of around 390,000 Daltons, excluding the glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Upon binding of receptors to exposed subendothelial ligands, signal transducers (including G-proteins, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C) collaborate to activate the cells. (genetics.org)
  • mammalian
  • In addition, because KLH is derived from the limpet, a gastropod, it is phylogenetically distant from mammalian proteins, thus reducing false positives in immunologically-based research techniques in mammalian model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, glutathione reductase appears to be a good target for anti-malarials, as the glutathione reductase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has a significantly different protein fold than that of mammalian glutathione reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutathione
  • Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron-sulfur proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form glutathione (GSH), which is a critical molecule in resisting oxidative stress and maintaining the reducing environment of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalent
  • Fatty acids are components of phospholipids and sphingolipids which are part of biological membranes, fats (triglycerides) which are used as energy storage devices inside cells (adipose tissue), function as fat transport vehicle in the blood (high and low density lipoproteins), and through covalent attachment are used for protein modification. (whatislife.com)
  • enzymes
  • The reaction sequence is carried out by a series of individual soluble proteins that are each encoded by a discrete gene, and the pathway intermediates are shuttled between the enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • linker
  • The invention features a method of attaching a ligand that has a free carboxyl group to a solid support by adding an amino group to the ligand to form a ligand-amino derivative, converting the ligand amino derivative to a ligand sulfhydryl derivative, attaching the ligand sulfhydryl derivative to a protein to form a ligand-linker-protein conjugate, and applying the ligand-linker-protein conjugate to the solid support. (google.com)
  • affinity
  • Using ELISA and Western Blot analyses we demonstrated both its high affinity and specificity without any cross-reactivity to other N -glycosylated proteins. (rsc.org)
  • If the molecular weight, hydrophobicity, charge, etc. of a protein is unknown, affinity chromatography can still apply to this situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • On the other hand, each enzymatic activity (Condensation reaction, Reduction Reaction, Dehydration reaction) is found as a discrete protein in type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • This radical then acts as the "stable" radical carrier in the reaction mechanism which transfers the radical to the amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cystine
  • We tried to clone the carrier of cystine by the differential screening to select stress-induced clones. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although we could not isolate a cNDA clone encodnig cystine carrier, we have succeeded in the cloning of a stress-induced 23 kDa protein named MSP23. (nii.ac.jp)
  • glycosylation
  • Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins in biological systems 1,2 and is associated with numerous biological processes including viral and bacterial infection, cancer metastasis, inflammatory response, innate and adaptive immunity, as well as many signaling pathways. (rsc.org)
  • 3,4 For a long time, protein glycosylation was considered to be restricted to eukaryotes. (rsc.org)
  • Electrophoresis
  • The sample material undergoes protein denaturation, followed by gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western blot method is composed of a gel electrophoresis to separate native proteins by 3-D structure or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide, followed by an electrophoretic transfer onto a membrane (mostly PVDF or Nitrocellulose) and an immunostaining procedure to visualize a certain protein on the blot membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Feedback and allosteric mechanisms ensure that all twenty amino acids are maintained in sufficient amounts for protein synthesis and other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated Tetrahydrofolate, a carrier of one-carbon units, plays an important role in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen carriers
  • Through disulfide reconfiguration to hybridize hemoglobin and albumin, tumor-targeted hybrid protein oxygen carriers (HPOCs) were fabricated, serving as nanomedicines for precise tumor oxygenation and simultaneous enhancement of hypoxia-dampened chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. (thno.org)
  • gene
  • We have identified the spe-12 gene, which encodes a novel protein containing a single transmembrane domain. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, hypoxia regulates the gene/protein expressions involved in drug resistance and induces poor drug delivery [ 11 - 13 ]. (thno.org)
  • GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) also known as sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • In contrast to chemical biotinylation methods, enzymatic biotinylation allows biotin to be linked at exactly one residue present in the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketosynthase
  • This protein collaborates with the ketosynthase (KS) domain of the same module to catalyze polyketide chain elongation, and subsequently engages with the KS domain of the next module to facilitate forward chain transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • Elevated Post-Translational Modification of Proteins by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine in Various Tissues of Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats Accompanied by Diabetic Complications", Acta Histochem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Blot
  • A semi-quantitative estimation of a protein can be derived from the size and color intensity of a protein band on the blot membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western blot is routinely used for verification of protein production after cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western blot method is composed of a gel electrophoresis to separate native proteins by 3-D structure or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide, followed by an electrophoretic transfer onto a membrane (mostly PVDF or Nitrocellulose) and an immunostaining procedure to visualize a certain protein on the blot membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Matveeva, E.A.;Price, D.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Reduction of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 expression leads to a kindling-resistant phenotype in a murine model of epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • aka the lactose/H+ symporter), which is now a paradigm for the Major Facilitator Superfamily, arguably the largest group of membrane transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This general experimental approach is recognized today and has become a standard tool for membrane protein research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis S. Rosenstiel Award (1973) Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1986) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1987)National Academy of Sciences (1987) Anatrace Membrane Protein Award (2007) Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award (2009) Peter Mitchell Memorial Medal (2012) The results of Kaback's studies are described in over 450 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins from known HIV-infected cells are separated and blotted on a membrane as above. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • In both fatty acid synthesis and polyketide synthesis these CoA carriers will be exchanged for ACP before they are incorporated into the growing molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • To assess the effects of macromolecular crowding on unfolding of an oligomeric protein, we here tested the effects of the synthetic crowding agent Ficoll 70 on human cpn10 (GroES in E. coli), a heptameric protein consisting of seven identical β-barrel subunits assembling into a ring. (diva-portal.org)
  • QP10902 protein expressed in E. Coli. (enquirebio.com)
  • have devised a procedure to reconstitute E.Coli Fatty Acid Synthase using purified protein components ( including FabD) and reported a detailed kinetic analysis of this in-vitro reconstituted system. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Type one synthases involve large multidomain proteins containing all the sites necessary for polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type two synthases contain active sites distributed among several smaller polypeptides, and type three synthases are large multi-protein complexes containing modules which have a single active site for each and every step of polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some bacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis as well as mammals and yeast use a type I synthase which is a large multifunctional protein similar to the synthase used for polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feedback and allosteric mechanisms ensure that all twenty amino acids are maintained in sufficient amounts for protein synthesis and other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • TXN protein is fused to a 20 amino acid His-Tag at N-terminus and purified by standard chromatography. (enquirebio.com)
  • Enzymatic biotinylation is most often carried out by fusing the protein of interest at its N-terminus, C-terminus or at an internal loop to a 15 amino acid peptide, termed AviTag or Acceptor Peptide (AP). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Elevated Expression of O-G1cNAc-Modified Proteins and O-GlcNAc Transferase in Corneas of Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 44(9):3802-3809, 2003. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Enzymatic biotinylation can also take place in vivo typically through the co-expression of an Avitag tagged protein and BirA. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Experiments on monomeric proteins have shown that macromolecular crowding can stabilize toward heat perturbation and also modulate native-state structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • The structure is given below: Zinc metal: Required for coordination between the dimers in the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The present invention is based on the discovery that hexosamine, and in particular the dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of proteins (modification of proteins by the sugar N-acetylglucosamine) both causes insulin-resistance (a hallmark of type II diabetes) and is responsible for glucose toxicity in the disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • SDS is generally used as a buffer (as well as in the gel) in order to give all proteins present a uniform negative charge, since proteins can be positively, negatively, or neutrally charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to chemical biotinylation methods, enzymatic biotinylation allows biotin to be linked at exactly one residue present in the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The protein oligomerises to form a barrel shaped didecameric complex which is composed of 20 monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Of the 10 different sarcomeric genes identified to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), mutations in cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBPC) are among the most common of all known hereditary linked HCM. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • specifically
  • Major transport into the blood stream is driven by an electrochemical gradient, specifically through the transport proteins RcGshT and RsGshT. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • In the case of DEBS, there are three large multi-functional proteins, DEBS 1,2, and 3, that each exist as a dimer of two modules. (wikipedia.org)