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  • proteins
  • After subsequently cloning and sequencing the LNBP gene from B. bifidum ( 19 ), we concluded that the deduced amino acid sequences of these LNBPs shared no significant identity with those of any other proteins with known functions. (asm.org)
  • The BL1638 to BL1640 genes were annotated to encode component proteins of an ATP-binding-cassette-type sugar transporter. (asm.org)
  • It has been shown that organic nutrients, which N-containing amino acids, peptides and proteins issued from auto-lysed yeast cells found in Fermaid O™ for example, and added at the beginning of fermentation and at 1/3 through the AF, are the best strategy for achieving complete and regular AF and maximizing the sensory potential of the wine. (lallemandwine.com)
  • It could be kinetic energy that is responsible for "splitting" proteins", amino-acids, and even DNA. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • In both Bacteria and Archaea , S-layers are composed of only one or, in a few cases, two different (glyco) proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The GLUT family of glycosylated transmembrane proteins are predicted to span the membrane 12 times with both amino- and carboxyl-termini located in the cytosol. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are most often large proteins (many are larger that 20 kDa) and their inhibition spectrum is rather narrow, spanning to closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M. endobia seems to be responsible for the biosynthesis of most cellular components and energy provision, and controls most informational processes for the consortium, while T. princeps appears to be a mere factory for amino acid synthesis, and translating proteins, using the precursors provided by M. endobia . (beds.ac.uk)
  • About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica -specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional classification of proteins, showed mainly of post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperone activities, carbohydrate and amino acid biosynthesis/transport, and cell wall biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • As noted already, these are Carbohydrates (which include sugars and polysaccharides) fats, proteins, nitrogen-bases drivatives which include adenoL'iie phosphates and nucleic acids. (tolueislam.org)
  • pathogenic bacteria
  • Colonization by bifidobacteria of the intestines of breast-fed infants increases rapidly within 1 week after birth, preventing infection by pathogenic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Mycoplasmas are pathogenic bacteria that cause serious chronic infections in production animals, resulting in considerable losses worldwide, as well as causing disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • produced by lactic acid bac
  • The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are divided into three main groups: the lantibiotics, which are modified bacteriocins (class I), the nonlantibiotics, which are heat-stable and unmodified (class II), and a group of large heat-labile bacteriocins (class III). (biomedcentral.com)
  • organic
  • In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms and organic acids as alternatives to antibiotics in feeds to reduce antibiotic residues in the carcass, among other excellent benefits such as diarrhea control and immunostimulation (2, 37, 42, 48, 54, 61). (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, heterotrophs, which include animals, fungi, and most bacteria, are unable to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources, and must rely on the (direct or indirect) consumption of plants and other autotrophs to obtain the organic substrates necessary for growth and development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As comprehensively reviewed elsewhere [ 2 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], the most commonly assessed metabolites in tracer experiments are organic acids, sugar (phosphates), nucleotides, and amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. (frontiersin.org)
  • This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Hexoses, accumulating from a significantly increased invertase activity, possibly inhibited the expression of photosynthesis genes and photosynthetic activity in infected leaves. (ugent.be)
  • Large-scale regulon inference using bioinformatics revealed remarkable variations in transcriptional regulators for L-Rha utilization genes among bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α-cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Degradation of these amino acids results in an increased flux of the amino acid carbon through the TCA cycle, the enzymatic genes for which are highly induced in the flea (Vadyvaloo et al. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation ( poxB , ackA ) were up-regulated in the biofilm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fructose
  • Moreover not-absorbed sugars could also produce a microbiota deterioration activating a positive feedback loop: the increasing microbiota deterioration reduces the functionality of absorption both of fructose and tryptophan in the gut, entering a vicious circle. (frontiersin.org)
  • yeast
  • A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. (scielo.br)
  • (7) YM-11 agar contains a rich source of trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, and carbon sources to provide optimum growing conditions for yeast and molds. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Wine yeast requires certain essential elements to transform must into wine: sugars, vitamins and minerals, some oxygen, and also very importantly, a sufficient concentration of Yeast Asssimilable Nitrogen. (lallemandwine.com)
  • The chosen gene encodes for a putative xylose isomerase gene (xylA) from the bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has not previously been transformed into yeast. (sun.ac.za)
  • Lack of activity was surmised to be due to an amino acid modification, or possibly due to a vastly different codon bias in yeast compared to the Bacteroides strain. (sun.ac.za)
  • and sugar transporters in various yeast, protozoa and higher plants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The connection between candida yeast infection overgrowth and sugar everything you need to know to better get rid of your candida. (yeastinfection.org)
  • galactose
  • The enzyme specifically phosphorolyzes galacto- N -biose (Galβ1→3GalNAc) (GNB) and lacto- N -biose I (Galβ1→3GlcNAc) (LNB) to yield α- d -galactose 1-phosphate (Gal1 P ) and the corresponding N -acetylhexosamine, suggesting that this enzyme might play a key role in metabolizing mucin sugars ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • probiotic
  • Bifidobacteria secrete a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that act on oligosaccharides, enabling them to grow on various prebiotic oligosaccharides that function to increase probiotic bacteria in vivo ( 6 , 7 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Among the properties exerted by lactobacilli, adhesion to enterocytes is a key feature of probiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • xylose
  • Hence D-xylose isomerase is used to produce these rare sugars which have very important applications in biology despite their low abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterium was mistakenly classified as a L. plantarum, which normally grows on the sugar L-arabinose, and rarely grown on D-xylose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the isomerization of xylose, crystal data has shown that xylose sugar binds to the enzyme in an open chain conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A synthetic D-xylose isomerase gene (SXI) based on the B. thetaiotaomicron XI amino acid sequence, but optimised for S. cerevisiae codon bias, was designed and manufactured. (sun.ac.za)
  • While major differences were not observed in gene and gene-product expression for enzymes associated with metabolic pathways under the different substrate conditions, xylulokinase and xylose isomerase of the pentose phosphate pathway were found to be highly up-regulated on five carbon sugars compared to hexoses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecules
  • and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Continued dependence on a sugar, and the importance of the chitin monomer N- acetyl- d- glucosamine as a carbon and energy source, suggests adaptation to host-derived molecules. (asm.org)
  • precursors
  • The new pathway is intended to replace the natural metabolic pathway known as glycolysis, a series of chemical reactions that nearly all organisms use to convert sugars into the molecular precursors that cells need. (greencarcongress.com)
  • microorganisms
  • These microorganisms play a critical role in bioleaching processes for industrial (biominery) and environmental applications (acid mine drainage, bioremediation). (biomedcentral.com)
  • acetic acid
  • In addition, its facultative heterofermentative characteristics makes ML Prime™ a safe choice for preventing the formation of acetic acid (volatile acidity) from hexose sugars. (lallemandwine.com)
  • Oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA), OxIAA conjugated to a hexose moiety via the carboxyl group, and the conjugates indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid (IAAsp) and indole-3-acetyl glutamate (IAGlu) were identified by mass spectrometry as primary products of IAA fed to the plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • symbiotic
  • Many insects have established mutualistic symbiotic relationships, particularly with intracellular bacteria that inhabit specialized cells of the animal host (bacteriocytes). (beds.ac.uk)
  • This work highlights the use of metabolic modeling to design defined growth media for symbiotic bacteria and may provide novel inhibitory targets to block trypanosome transmission. (asm.org)
  • Included in this are a vast array of symbiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge on EPSs produced by marine bacteria including symbiotic marine EPS-producing bacteria isolated from some marine annelid worms that live in extreme niches. (mdpi.com)
  • protein
  • After purifying LNBP from B. bifidum , we found that its partial amino acid sequences ( 13 ) were highly homologous with that of the BL1641 protein of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, whose entire genomic sequence was available ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Gelatin peptone is added to provide a rich source of protein, and selective agents are added to inhibit bacteria. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • There are twenty amino acids used, in different combinations, to make every protein required by the human body. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The amino acids present and the order in which they occur vary from one protein to another. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A protein may contain any type, any number and any sequence ofamino-acids. (tolueislam.org)
  • lipids
  • Characteristics particular to archaea include differences in cell membrane lipids and cell walls ( Albers and Meyer, 2011 ), which vary in composition and, unlike bacteria, lack peptidoglycan ( Kandler and König, 1978 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • bacterial
  • Finally, cysteine shows the fastest specific consumption rate among the amino acids, confirming its key role for bacterial survival under ethanol stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • colonization
  • The much higher levels of sugars and amino acids in infected plants are presumably accessed by the bacteria as carbon and nitrogen sources to support epiphytic and endophytic colonization. (ugent.be)
  • These results suggest that the gene operon lnpABCD encodes a previously undescribed lacto- N -biose I/galacto- N -biose metabolic pathway that is involved in the intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria and that utilizes lacto- N -biose I from human milk oligosaccharides or galacto- N -biose from mucin sugars. (asm.org)
  • pyruvate
  • The pathway involves the partial oxidation and splitting of sugars to pyruvate, which in turn is decarboxylated to produce acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for various biosynthetic purposes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The decarboxylation of pyruvate loses a carbon equivalent, and limits the theoretical carbon yield to only two moles of two-carbon (C2) metabolites per mole of hexose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. (mdpi.com)
  • motif
  • Besides the 12 presumed TM domains, the most characteristic structural feature of the superfamily is a five residue motif (RXGRR, where X is any amino acid). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • uptake
  • The invention provides a rapid, quantitative assay to directly assess the impact of a diverse range of sugars upon the sugar-mediated uptake of corresponding sugar-conjugates into various cell types. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and(c) assessing uptake of said glycoconjugates into the cells,wherein sugar-mediated transport of the glycoconjugates into the cells is quantified relative to a corresponding conjugate lacking the attached sugars. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • oeni
  • However, in commercial winemaking, malolactic conversion typically is initiated by an inoculation of desirable bacteria, usually O. oeni . (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Both share an acid residue Glutamic acid 216 of the enzyme that bridges the two cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of L. reuteri produce the enzyme invertase, which is used in converting sugar from sucrose (17, 26). (scielo.br)
  • If one adds malonic acid to cells, or to a test tube mixture of succinic acid and the enzyme, the action of the enzyme is strongly inhibited. (biology-pages.info)
  • This is because the structure of malonic acid allows it to bind to the same site on the enzyme (b) . (biology-pages.info)
  • The enzyme is antibacterial because it degrades the polysaccharide that is found in the cell walls of many bacteria. (biology-pages.info)
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • sucrose
  • Sucrose hydrolysis is clearly a major physiological function of the Mn 1-encoded INCW2 in the BETL and there is evidence that metabolically released hexoses, not exogenous, are critical as a driving force in assimilate movement between maternal and filial cells ( Cheng and Chourey, 1999 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • commonly
  • L-rhamnose (L-Rha) is a deoxy-hexose sugar commonly found in nature. (frontiersin.org)
  • The temperate phage vector, originally called PLT 22, is now commonly referred to as P22 and has continued to be the virus of choice for investigating the genetics of this bacterium. (asm.org)
  • yeasts
  • is a privately held Canadian company, founded at the end of the 19th century, specializing in the development, production, and marketing of yeasts and bacteria. (lallemandwine.com)
  • species
  • The isomerase has now been observed in nearly a hundred species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria have extremely reduced genomes and are thought to have limited metabolic flexibility, even though they are highly successful persistent parasites in a diverse number of species. (asm.org)
  • Bacteria will react with them and will give different colors which will help to identify bacteria to the species level). (microbeonline.com)
  • nitrogen
  • Adaptation to the amino acid-rich blood diet is revealed by a strong dependence on l- glutamate as a source of carbon and nitrogen and by the ability to rescue a predicted l- arginine auxotrophy. (asm.org)