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  • triglycerides
  • Conductor of the study published in the journal Nutrition, Shelia West, found that the levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, decreased by approximately a third in a meal prepared with spices. (amazonaws.com)
  • Smokers
  • Smokers also have higher rates of diabetes, but it is not clear whether smoking is the cause, because they could have other risk factors, Friedman explained. (scienceblog.com)
  • Our results suggest that reducing tissue glucocorticoid levels or decreasing insulin resistance may reduce the heart disease seen in smokers," Friedman said. (scienceblog.com)
  • The investigators defined current smokers, which made up 25 percent of the sample, as survey participants who reported that they smoke cigarettes and who had a measured serum cotinine level greater than 3 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Participants who answered "no" to this question but whose cotinine level was above 0.05 ng/mL were defined as secondhand "smokers" (34 percent). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Secondhand smokers also had a higher rate of Type 2 diabetes, as defined by a hemoglobin A1c greater than 6.5 percent. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Secondhand smokers also had a higher body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat, compared with nonsmokers, Friedman reported. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Current smokers had a lower BMI than nonsmokers but a higher hemoglobin A1c. (medicalxpress.com)
  • When the researchers controlled for BMI, they found that secondhand smokers and current smokers still had a higher hemoglobin A1c than did nonsmokers. (medicalxpress.com)