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  • genes
  • Reverse-Genetic Analysis of the Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes of" by Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan et al. (iastate.edu)
  • With the exception of BCCP, single-copy genes encode these subunits in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). (iastate.edu)
  • Therefore, a likely explanation for the observed unidirectional redundancy between these two paralogous genes is that whereas the BCCP1 protein can compensate for the lack of BCCP2, the absence of BCCP1 cannot be tolerated as BCCP2 levels are not sufficient to support heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activity at a level that is required for normal growth and development. (iastate.edu)
  • A functional LAT1 transporter is composed of two proteins encoded by two distinct genes: 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • The carrier protein sequence is a tripartite repeat, in which each repeat consists of a pair of membrane-spanning domains connected by a matrix-sided loop. (rupress.org)
  • The beta subunits of these transporters show sufficient sequence similarity to the Na+:H+ antiporters of the CPA2 family (TC #2.A.37) to establish homology (K. Studley and M.H. Saier, Jr., unpublished results). (wikipedia.org)
  • reductase
  • The heterotetramer with HSD17B8 has NADH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase activity, and thereby plays a role in mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Each module contains different combinations of the ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoyl reductase (ER) domains that can modify and tailor the two-carbon subunits to form the resulting fatty acid chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • A polypeptide chain has one gene coding for it - meaning that a protein must have one gene for each unique subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second method of making a subunit vaccine involves putting an antigen's gene from the targeted virus or bacterium into another virus (virus vector), yeast (yeast vector) in the case of the hepatitis B vaccine or attenuated bacterium (bacterial vector) to make a recombinant virus or bacteria to serve as the important component of a recombinant vaccine (called a recombinant subunit vaccine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, members of the skeletal muscle lipid droplet-associated proteins family associate with other proteins, as activator of adipose triglyceride lipase and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58, to regulate lipolysis in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • Unlike cleavable preproteins, following translocation across the outer membrane via the translocase of the outer membrane, carrier preproteins are bound by the soluble Tim9-Tim10 complex of which the majority of this complex (~95%) is free floating within the intermembrane space. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Just like the highly successful subunit vaccines, the recombinant-vector-produced antigen will be of little to no risk to the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be subject to mannose addition in patterns different from those used by mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference in recombinant proteins from those normally produced in mammalian organisms may influence the effectiveness of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • disulfide
  • CRM197, like diphtheria toxin, is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids (58.4 kD) consisting of two subunits (linked by disulfide bridges). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Deciphering the Message in Protein Sequences: Tolerance to Amino Acid Substitutions," Science 247:1306-1310 (1990). (patentgenius.com)
  • SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of differentiation 98). (wikipedia.org)
  • LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports neutral branched (valine, leucine, isoleucine) and aromatic (tryptophan, tyrosine) amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • After translocation across both membranes, the presequence is generally cleaved and a number of chaperones mediate folding of the mature form of the precursor protein. (rupress.org)
  • At the opening of the TIM17-23 complex, Tim44 recruits mitochondrial heat shock protein 70, which further mediates translocation of the precursor through ATP hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation
  • b. phosphorylation by protein kinase A. c. allosterically inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA. (memorize.com)
  • ManX contains two domains IIA and IIB linked by a hinge peptide with each domain containing a phosphorylation site and phosphoryl transfer occurs between both subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugate
  • It is also called a conjugate vaccine, in which a polysaccharide antigen has been covalently attached to a carrier protein for T-cell-dependent antigen processing (utilizing MHC II). (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Each α and β subunit, in turn, has four functional domains, and together, the eight functional domains catalyze all the reactions of fatty acid synthesis in yeast, which includes: activation, priming, elongation, and termination. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • The alpha subunits are arranged as monomers, decorating the central beta-6 hexameric core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The above observations seemed incompatible with the classical 'head-to-tail' model for FAS organization, and an alternative model has been proposed, predicting that the KS and MAT domains of both monomers lie closer to the center of the FAS dimer, where they can access the ACP of either subunit (see figure on the top right). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • MAOA (Monoamine Oxidase A) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TIMM10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R15A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gadd34/MyD116 gene was originally discovered as a member in a set of gadd and MyD mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergistically suppress cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are two genes in this region that can be associated with TNDM: ZAC and HYMAI Genes ZAC is a zinc-finger protein that controls apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cell cycle arrest (cell division and duplication of DNA stops when the cell detects cell damage or defects) in PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the gene produce several variants of the proteins which are implicated with genetic disorders such as sickle-cell disease and beta thalassemia, as well as beneficial traits such as genetic resistance to malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • HBB protein is produced by the gene HBB which is located in the multigene locus of β-globin locus on chromosome 11, specifically on the short arm position 15.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible polymorphism of the CELA1 gene coding this protein was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common of these mutations is found in 10 to 20 percent of Leigh syndrome and occurs in MT-ATP6, a gene that codes for a protein in the last complex of the oxidative phosphorylation chain, ATP synthase, an enzyme that directly generates ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • In doing so, the failing heart reverts to a fetal-like metabolic program, reflected by a repression of various genes encoding core FAO pathway proteins (e.g., medium chain acyl-coenzyme A [CoA] dehydrogenase, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and their upstream regulators (e.g. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The TATA box is the binding site of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and transcription factors in some eukaryotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • An average of 70% of TNDM is caused by defects initiating over-expression of the father genes in the imprinted region (genes whose expression is dependent on the parent that contributed them) of chromosome 6q24 (Chromosome meaning a string-like structure made of nucleic acid and protein that carries genetic material). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Blalock, E.M.;Chen, K.C.;Vanaman, T.C.;Landfield, P.W.;Slevin, J.T. "Epilepsy-induced decrease of L-type Ca2+ channel activity and coordinate regulation of subunit mRNA in single neurons of rat hippocampal 'zipper' slices. (uky.edu)
  • Intron A may sometimes be included to improve mRNA stability and hence increase protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • bind
  • Adaptins recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal ear (appendage) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The archaea protein exhibits a greater symmetry in its primary sequence and in the distribution of electrostatic charge, which is important because the higher symmetry lowers the protein's ability to bind the TATA box in a polar manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • Most studies say that hormones can only affect cells when they are not bound by serum proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a curiosity, the same mutation was also associated to a decrease in serum LDL levels in carriers, so the authors suggest that is due to the need of cholesterol to regenerate cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling molecules
  • The importance of metabolic flexibility is underscored by appreciation for the fact that various substrates are more than just a fuel for the heart, serving also as building blocks for numerous cellular components (e.g., membranes, proteins), cofactors, and signaling molecules. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Adjacent to the PH domain is a central, proline-rich domain that contains many PXXP motifs for binding to the SH3 domains of signaling molecules such as Grb2 (from which the name "Grb2-associated binding" protein, GAB, comes). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • LMDs are docking proteins that function as platforms mediating interaction between different signaling pathways and assisting with signal integration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two main pathways of GAB proteins are SHP2 and PI3K. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it is easy to see that amplification of signal can progress quickly and these proteins can have large effects on the state of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Rabbit Anti-Human Androgen Receptor. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Heart Lungs Gastrointestinal tract Endothelial cells Like all histamine receptors, the H3 receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H3 receptor is coupled to the Gi G-protein, so it leads to inhibition of the formation of cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that binding sites in this region may be used in indirect mechanisms pairing the GAB2 protein to receptor tyrosine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Also, the β and γ subunits interact with N-type voltage gated calcium channels, to reduce action potential mediated influx of calcium and hence reduce neurotransmitter release. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatase
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAB2 was initially discovered as a binding protein and substrate of protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2/PTPN11. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 35 kDa subunit- related protein 2 (U2(RNU2) small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1-like 2) (CCCH type zinc finger, RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich protein 2) (Renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-20). (yellowcouch.org)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These subunits are present in different forms, their corresponding ligands classify these receptors into four groups: RGD receptors, laminin receptors, leukocyte-specific receptors and collagen receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is on the C-terminal tail that the various conserved protein binding motifs and phosphorylation sites of GAB2 are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The disordered region of the protein however may not be as disordered as was initially expected, as sequencing has revealed significant similarity between the "disordered" regions of GAB orthologs in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesions can contain over 100 different proteins, which suggests a considerable functional diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain of Beta2-adaptin is a protein domain is involved in cell trafficking by aiding import and export of substances in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesions are in a state of constant flux: proteins associate and disassociate with it continually as signals are transmitted to other parts of the cell, relating to anything from cell motility to cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carriers of this mutation show an enhanced red blood cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • Focal adhesions serve as the mechanical linkages to the ECM, and as a biochemical signaling hub to concentrate and direct numerous signaling proteins at sites of integrin binding and clustering. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha
  • For example, in AP1 these subunits are gamma-1-adaptin, beta-1-adaptin, mu-1 and sigma-1, while in AP2 they are alpha-adaptin, beta-2-adaptin, mu-2 and sigma-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrins are heterodimers which are formed from one beta and one alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta globin (also referred to as HBB, β-globin, haemoglobin beta, hemoglobin beta, or preferably haemoglobin subunit beta) is a globin protein, which along with alpha globin (HBA), makes up the most common form of haemoglobin in adult humans, the HbA. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • GAB2 is a large multi-site docking protein (LMD) of about 100kD that has a folded N-terminal domain attached to an extended, disordered C-terminal tail rich in short linear motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary structure
  • GAB1, GAB2, GAB3 and GAB4) GAB2 is an Intrinsically disordered protein, meaning that beyond the folded N-terminal region, the C-terminal region extends out into the cytoplasm with little or no secondary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • Arikawa J, Yao J-S, Yoshimatsu K, Takashima I, Hashimoto N (1992) Protective role of antigenic sites on the envelope protein of Hantaan virus defined by monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Polycistronic vectors (ones located at multiple genome sites) are sometimes constructed to express more than one immunogen, or to express an immunogen and an immunostimulatory protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery of multiple binding sites in GAB proteins has led to the N-terminal folding nucleation (NFN) hypothesis for the structure of the disordered region. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a globally important commercial crop, grown mainly for its protein, oil and nutraceutical contents. (intechopen.com)
  • domain
  • The N-terminal is characterized by a Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain that is the most highly conserved region between all members of the GAB family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory suggests that the disordered domain is looped back to connect to the N-terminal, structured region several times to make the protein more compact. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. (wikipedia.org)