• Protein subunits 9a and 9b found in the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana by IU biologists play a role in how different RNA polymerases work, including performing RNA-directed DNA methylation. (eurekalert.org)
  • P. Jin, T. M. Weiger, I. B. Levitan, Reciprocal modulation between the α and β4 subunits of h Slo calcium-dependent potassium channels. (sciencemag.org)
  • Voltage-gated potassium channels that contain the Kv1.5 subunit associate with Src-family kinases through a Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and proline-rich domain on the enzyme and Kv1.5, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors show that when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, phosphorylation of these subunits by kinases that are associated with an adjacent Kv1.5 subunit results in the suppression of channel currents. (sciencemag.org)
  • With both linked and free subunits, greater ACh-induced currents per surface AChR were observed with the (α4) 3 (β2) 2 stoichiometry than with the (α4) 2 (β2) 3 stoichiometry. (jneurosci.org)
  • Monopentameric (α4) 3 (β2) 2 AChRs formed by wild-type subunits or a combination of concatamers and free α4 subunits produced greater ACh-induced currents per surface AChR than did (α4) 2 (β2) 3 monopentamers formed from wild-type subunits or concatamers in combination with free β2 subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although it remains to be established whether there are physiological repercussions of the changes revealed by monitoring toxin sensitivity, the authors note that it may be important to consider such two-way communication between subunits to fully understand mechanisms that regulate channel conductance. (sciencemag.org)
  • We prepared concatamers of α4 and β2 subunits for human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), in which the C terminus of α4 was linked to the N terminus of β2, or vice versa, via a tripeptide sequence repeated 6 or 12 times, and expressed them in Xenopus oocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • The reason for the partial opening in the drk1 K + channel may therefore be the different energy barriers for the activation of the voltage sensors, and the energy from the sensors may have been sufficient to uncouple any cooperativity between subunits in the C terminus of S6. (pnas.org)
  • Ost5 is an essential subunit of the N-oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex which catalyzes the transfer of a high mannose oligosaccharide from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor to an asparagine residue within an Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus motif in nascent polypeptide chains [ PMID: 9878773 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Opening of a single subunit would disturb the coordination of the interaction and facilitate opening of further subunits. (pnas.org)
  • We linked the α4 and β2 subunits via a synthetic oligonucleotide encoding a neutral short peptide to investigate the efficiency of assembly, subunit stoichiometry, and subunit order within an AChR pentamer. (jneurosci.org)
  • The AMPK Subunit Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the role played by all AMPK subunits in cellular energy homeostasis. (cellsignal.com)
  • report that this occurs because Kv1.5 recruits Src-like kinases to the vicinity of these other subunits in the context of heteromultimeric channels. (sciencemag.org)
  • Whereas a partial opening of the tetrameric channel is suggested to be responsible for subconductance levels of ion channels, including KcsA, a cooperative opening of the 4 subunits is postulated as the final opening step. (pnas.org)
  • The main indications for independent movement of the 4 subunits came from subconductance levels that were found in different families of channels, including KcsA ( 5 , , 9 - , 11 ) and Shaker ( , 12 , , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chapman and VanDongen ( , 14 ) demonstrated for voltage-gated channels that in heterotetramers with subunits of different voltage dependence, the channel enters frequently into subconductance levels at intermediate activation voltage. (pnas.org)
  • The results demonstrate that gamma subunit rotates relative to the beta subunits during catalysis. (pnas.org)
  • Although these results suggest an independent action of the subunits, their models improved significantly when introducing a cooperativity factor for the pore opening. (pnas.org)
  • Using a dissociation/reassembly approach with crosslinked beta D380C-F1, we incorporated radiolabeled beta subunits into the two noncrosslinked beta-subunit positions of F1. (pnas.org)
  • Because the pore region consists of a tetramer, it is still a matter of debate whether the 4 subunits open in 1 cooperative movement, or whether all 4 subunits open and close independently. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we used single-channel fluorescence spectroscopy of KcsA to directly observe the movement of each subunit and the temporal correlation between subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, in the present work, we set out to directly measure the movement of single subunits to determine their temporal coordination with the aim of determining whether the channel opens in 1 cooperative step or if each subunit moves independently. (pnas.org)
  • Dipentamers were selectively expressed on the cell surface, whereas most monopentamers with dangling subunits were retained intracellularly. (jneurosci.org)
  • The subunits are not cross-reactive in T-cell assays. (springer.com)
  • Receptors in the superfamily are formed by five homologous subunits oriented around a central ion channel similar to barrel staves. (jneurosci.org)
  • Assembly of AChRs from concatamers was less efficient, but function was much more efficient than that of unlinked subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • But this effect is lost when the β4 subunit is fully glycosylated. (sciencemag.org)
  • The analysis revealed that the 4 subunits do not move fully independently but instead showed a certain degree of cooperativity. (pnas.org)
  • show that the β4 subunit expressed in HEK 293 cells is multiply glycosylated and that full glycosylation can be observed only when the α subunit is also expressed. (sciencemag.org)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take factor XIII A-subunit with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)