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  • catalyses
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in beta-D-glucans containing (1->3)- and (1->4)-bonds This enzyme acts on lichenin and cereal beta-D-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase (or 4-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of (1->4)-linkages in 1,4-beta-D-glucans and related oligosaccharides, removing successive glucose units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Carbonic anhydrase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes encoding CYP enzymes, and the enzymes themselves, are designated with the root symbol CYP for the superfamily, followed by a number indicating the gene family, a capital letter indicating the subfamily, and another numeral for the individual gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CYP2E1 is the gene that encodes the enzyme CYP2E1-one of the enzymes involved in paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some gene or enzyme names for CYPs may differ from this nomenclature, denoting the catalytic activity and the name of the compound used as substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-16 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP16 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) also known as macrophage metalloelastase (MME) or macrophage elastase (ME) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-17 (MMP-17) also known as membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 4 (MT-MMP 4) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP17 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitability
  • The suitability of enzymes as markers is not only determined by their great molar activity that is to be largely maintained even after binding to immunoreactants, their stability and commercial availability but especially by their simple, practicable and sensitive detectability. (springer.com)
  • In this section, we describe the characteristics of our enzyme substrates and the fluorophores and chromophores from which they are derived, focusing primarily on the suitability of these substrates for different types of enzyme assays. (thermofisher.com)
  • metabolic
  • It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • When the spectral characteristics of the substrate and its metabolic product are similar, techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis, solvent extraction or ion exchange can be used to separate the product from unconsumed substrate prior to analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation, naphthalene and anthracene degradation, and fluorene degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent
  • An ideal fluorogenic substrate for fluorescence-based solution assays yields a highly fluorescent, water-soluble product with optical properties significantly different from those of the substrate. (thermofisher.com)
  • These fluorescent products can typically be quantitated in the presence of the unreacted substrate using a fluorometer or a fluorescence microplate reader. (thermofisher.com)
  • Detecting Enzymes That Metabolize Phosphates and Polyphosphates-Section 10.3 ), are only weakly fluorescent in the optimal configuration for 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin detection (excitation/emission = 360/460 nm, Figure 10.1.2 ). (thermofisher.com)
  • product
  • Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. (hindawi.com)
  • The ProtoArray Enzyme Substrate Profiling application is available either as a custom service or as a product. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our RediPlate product line includes enzyme substrates predispensed in 96-well plates for high-throughput applications, along with the appropriate reference standards and other reaction components. (thermofisher.com)
  • The ternary complex is an intermediate between the product formation in this type of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These proprietary substrates provide novel color choices essential for staining antigens in pigmented tissues and melanomas as well as for localizing multiple antigens in the same tissue section. (vectorlabs.com)
  • mechanism
  • The presence of a small concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide destabilized the dimer and changed the unfolding mechanism of the enzyme. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The NAD + synthetase conformation of the homodimer with partially dissociated dimer interface can be important from the point of view of an inhibition mechanism study of this dimeric enzyme. (jbsdonline.com)
  • catalytic efficiency
  • In general, the catalytic efficiency ( k cat /K m ) toward small hydrophobic substrates was increased (up to 16 times) by hydrophobic substitutions at position 166 in the binding cleft. (sciencemag.org)
  • Exceeding the optimal binding volume of the cleft (∼160 Å 3 ), by enlarging either the substrate side chain or the side chain at position 166, evoked precipitous drops in catalytic efficiency ( k cat /K m ) (up to 5000 times) as a result of steric hindrance. (sciencemag.org)
  • homology
  • The second model was a homology model for YOL151w based on the enzyme crystal structure of Sporobolomyces salmonicolor carbonyl reductase, SSCR. (hindawi.com)
  • molecule
  • Substrate binding induces a change in the conformation of the active site, often displacing a water molecule from the distal axial coordination position of the heme iron, and changing the state of the heme iron from low-spin to high-spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, a mixture containing the molecule to be detected is applied directly on a membrane as a dot, and then is spotted through circular templates directly onto the membrane or paper substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The substrates deposit a colored precipitate directly on the membrane, eliminating the additional steps of exposing and developing film, or image capture. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Finally, for chemiluminescence imaging, the piece of membrane is wrapped in a transparent plastic film filled with enzyme substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] For chemiluminescence signal detection, the apparatus is dissembled and the membrane is taken out and wrapped in a transparent plastic film filled with enzyme substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectral
  • Many of our substrates have unique spectral profiles that may be useful in the co-localization of antigens using spectral imaging systems. (vectorlabs.com)
  • heat resistant
  • Substrates that are designated "heat resistant" were developed on tissue then subjected to heat induced epitope retrival (HIER) using a pressure cooker technique (stained tissue was pressure cooked for 1 minute in Antigen Unmasking Solution, returned to room temperature, and rinsed in buffer). (vectorlabs.com)
  • detection
  • Choose a substrate that matches the enzyme in your detection system. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Vector Laboratories offers many enzyme substrate kits for use with peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose oxidase detection systems that can be used in a wide variety of applications. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Chandler, H.M., and Hurell, G.R., 1982, A new enzyme immunoassay system suitable for field use and its application in a snake venom detection kit, Clin. (springer.com)
  • amino
  • A conserved glycine (Gly 166 ), located at the bottom of the substrate binding left, was replaced by 12 nonionic amino acids by the cassette mutagenesis method. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hydroxy- and amino-substituted coumarins have been the most widely used fluorophores for preparing fluorogenic substrates. (thermofisher.com)
  • reactions
  • Like all catalysts, enzymes accelerate the rates of reactions while experiencing no permanent chemical modification as a result of their participation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enzymes can accelerate, often by several orders of magnitude, reactions that under the mild conditions of cellular concentrations, temperature, p H, and pressure would proceed imperceptibly (or not at all) in the absence of the enzyme. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most common reaction catalyzed by cytochromes P450 is a monooxygenase reaction, e.g., insertion of one atom of oxygen into the aliphatic position of an organic substrate (RH) while the other oxygen atom is reduced to water: RH + O2 + NADPH + H+ → ROH + H2O + NADP+ Many hydroxylation reactions (insertion of hydroxyl groups) use CYP enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is seen in multi-substrate enzyme-catalyzed reactions where two substrates and two products can be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Products
  • Fortunately, many substrates have low intrinsic fluorescence or are metabolized to products that have longer-wavelength excitation or emission spectra ( Figure 10.1.1 ). (thermofisher.com)
  • The substrates of this enzyme are ATP, deamido-NAD+, L-glutamine, and H2O, whereas its 4 products are AMP, diphosphate, NAD+, and glutamate This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Size
  • As a result, predicting stereoselectivity of KREDs is more complicated than is allowed for with just substrate size and geometry. (hindawi.com)
  • activity
  • Sigma-Aldrich provides many substrates to determine the activity of diverse enzymes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Examples include CYP5A1, thromboxane A2 synthase, abbreviated to TBXAS1 (ThromBoXane A2 Synthase 1), and CYP51A1, lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, sometimes unofficially abbreviated to LDM according to its substrate (Lanosterol) and activity (DeMethylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • These results suggest that Lys[superscript]140 may play an important role in enzymatic activity;Chemical modification of the enzyme with phenylglyoxal resulted in an inhibition of enzyme acitivity. (iastate.edu)
  • In this study the investigators will test the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibition attenuates the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition but not angiotensin receptor blockade or calcium channel blockade. (trialstoday.org)
  • peptide
  • Within Foldit, we loaded Kumamolisin's crystal structure in complex with a model PQLP peptide that recurs frequently in gluten, thus mimicking gluten as a substrate. (igem.org)
  • gene
  • Kunkel mutagenesis is a classic procedure for incorporating targeted mutations into a piece of DNA, so it was ideal for changing our wild-type Kumamolisin gene to code instead for specifically designed variant enzymes. (igem.org)
  • The first step to producing our specially designed enzymes was to change the wild-type gene that codes for Kumamolisin to code instead for variant enzymes with our desired amino acid substitutions. (igem.org)
  • wild type
  • When Cys[superscript]344 was replaced by either serine or alanine, the mutant enzymes were as active as the wild type enzyme. (iastate.edu)
  • The mutants were tested against wild-type kumamolisin and ScPEP, an enzyme currently used for the treatment of gluten intolerance via proteolysis. (igem.org)
  • presence
  • Complete protection of the enzyme against inactivation can be observed only in the presence of GTP. (iastate.edu)
  • COX-2 is naturally inhibited by Calcitriol (the active form of Vitamin D). Both the peroxidase and PTGS activities are inactivated during catalysis by mechanism-based, first-order processes, which means that PGHS-2 peroxidase or PTGS activities fall to zero within 1-2 minutes, even in the presence of sufficient substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • H. salinarum have been reported to not be able to grow on sugars, and therefore need to encode enzymes capable of performing gluconeogenesis to create sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-CH group of donor with other acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and incorporation or reduction of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides to catalyse transmembrane movement of substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases that convert acyl groups into alkyl groups on transfer. (wikipedia.org)