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  • botulinum
  • BoNTs (botulinum neurotoxins) are both deadly neurotoxins and natural toxins that are widely used in protein therapies to treat numerous neurological disorders of dystonia and spinal spasticity. (biochemj.org)
  • cysteine
  • Protein S -acylation, commonly but somewhat inaccurately known as protein palmitoylation, is a post-translational lipid modification involving the covalent addition of long-chain fatty acids (predominantly the 16-carbon palmitic acid) to protein cysteine thiols via thioester linkages ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Third, although a class of PATs sharing a conserved Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif within a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), as well as several deacylating enzymes, has been recognized for several years, the enzymology of protein S -acylation and deacylation remains poorly understood ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Peptidases in clan CA are usually sensitive to the small molecule inhibitor E64, which is ineffective against peptidases from other clans of cysteine peptidases [ PMID: 7044372 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins harbor thiol side chains that are highly reactive toward oxidants and can undergo various redox-based modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • disulfide
  • BoNTs are 150-kDa single chain AB proteins ( Figure 1 ) cleaved to form a 50-kDa light chain (L) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (H), which are linked by a disulfide bond. (mdpi.com)
  • Targets of Trx, such as phosphoribulokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, transketolase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase have at least one regulatory disulfide bridge which supports the conclusion that the identified proteins undergo reversible thiol oxidation. (frontiersin.org)
  • thiols
  • Here the chloroplast proteins were subjected to partial oxidation by exogenous addition of H 2 O 2 equivalent to 10% of available protein thiols which allowed for the identification of the primary targets of oxidation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chosen redox proteomic approach employed differential labeling of non-oxidized and oxidized thiols using sequential alkylation with N -ethylmaleimide and biotin maleimide. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is evidence that thiol group-containing antioxidants can prevent EV induction by pro-inflammatory and oxidative stimuli, likely by protecting protein thiols of the EV-secreting cells from oxidation. (springer.com)
  • As the redox state of protein thiols greatly impacts three-dimensional protein structure and, consequently, function, redox modifications of protein thiols may directly modulate EV release in response to changes in the cell's redox environment. (springer.com)
  • tetanus
  • 1995). However cellubrevin is also a substrate for proteolytic action of tetanus toxin just like VAMP-1 and 2, and suggests similar roles in exocytosis due to the blocking of neurotransmitter release in the presence of tetanus (Chilcote et al. (bsu.edu)
  • To date, there is a lack of detailed information with regard to how BoNTs recognize and hydrolyse the substrate VAMP-2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), even though it is known to be cleaved by four of the seven BoNT serotypes, B, D, F, G and TeNT (tetanus neurotoxin). (biochemj.org)
  • enzyme
  • Overall, this study indicates that there are interspecies differences regarding the in vitro reduction of vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide by the warfarin-sensitive enzyme vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide reductase. (embl.de)
  • A recurrent theme is that multiple proteins with similar enzyme activities exist in each of these families. (physiology.org)
  • molecular
  • Protein engineering helps us to explore relationships between molecular structures and mechanical functions. (stanford.edu)
  • At the International meeting on the cellular functions of AAA proteins in Kyoto, Japan, the organizers asked participants to come up with 'a common molecular basis' for understanding these proteins. (embopress.org)
  • The molecular identification of genes encoding enzymes that catalyze steps in TAG biosynthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate has revealed an unexpected number of protein isoforms of the glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and lipin (phosphatidate phosphatase) families that appear to catalyze similar biochemical reactions. (physiology.org)
  • This molecular organisation prevents native proteins from entering the cavity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of LC/F substrate recognition provides insights into the development of antitoxins and engineering novel BoNTs to optimize current therapy and extend therapeutic interventions. (biochemj.org)
  • thiol
  • They are inhibited by thiol chelators such as iodoacetate, iodoacetic acid, N -ethylmaleimide or p -chloromercuribenzoate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the thiol-containing proteins that modulate EV release in pro-oxidant environments could provide a rationale for broad application of thiol group-containing antioxidants in chronic inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • mediates
  • The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the plasmalemmal membrane protein that mediates the inactivation of released DA through its reuptake, shaping the magnitude and time course of dopaminergic signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • intracellular
  • The SEC14 domain, alone or attached to a heterologous protein, was localized to intracellular vesicle membranes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y+/CATs and system y+L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. (deepdyve.com)
  • vitro
  • The in vitro identified proteins are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, and nitrogen assimilation. (frontiersin.org)
  • localization
  • Protein S -acylation (palmitoylation), a reversible post-translational modification, is critically involved in regulating protein subcellular localization, activity, stability, and multimeric complex assembly. (mcponline.org)
  • In combination with label-free spectral counting quantitation, PalmPISC led to the identification of 67 known and 331 novel candidate S -acylated proteins as well as the localization of 25 known and 143 novel candidate S -acylation sites. (mcponline.org)
  • complexes
  • BACKGROUND: The VAT protein of the archaebacterium Thermoplasmaacidophilum, like all other members of the Cdc48/p97 family of AAAATPases, has two ATPase domains and a 185-residue amino-terminalsubstrate-recognition domain, VAT-N. VAT shows activity in protein foldingand unfolding and thus shares the common function of these ATPases indisassembly and/or degradation of protein complexes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The response was an impressive display that establishes the AAA proteins, alongside G proteins, as mediators of assembly and disassembly of macromolecular complexes. (embopress.org)
  • AAA proteins do a lot of heavy work in the cell: erecting or disassembling complexes, unfolding or unwinding macromolecules, and transporting cellular cargo. (embopress.org)
  • In addition, bioinformatics analysis suggested that S -acylated proteins are highly enriched within core complexes of caveolae and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, both cholesterol-rich membrane structures. (mcponline.org)
  • BoNTs
  • BoNT Structure-function BoNTs are the most toxic protein toxins for humans [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Understanding the mechanism of action and substrate specificity of BoNTs is a prerequisite to develop antitoxin and novel BoNT-derived protein therapy. (biochemj.org)
  • proteome scale
  • Here we describe a novel proteomics approach, designated palmitoyl protein identification and site characterization (PalmPISC), for proteome scale enrichment and characterization of S -acylated proteins extracted from lipid raft-enriched and non-raft membranes. (mcponline.org)
  • Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. (genes2cognition.org)
  • terminus
  • The negative C terminus interacts with the positive N terminus of the substrate and anchors it to the active site. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • synaptic
  • Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Seth Villarreal 1 , Sung Hoon Lee 1,2 , Ling-Gang Wu 1 1 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2 College of Pharmacy, Chung-ang University Synaptic vesicle endocytosis is detected by light microscopy of pHluorin fused with synaptic vesicle protein and by electron microscopy of vesicle uptake. (jove.com)
  • calcium
  • Surface specific radioiodination was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a 45Ca-overlay assay, computer assisted image analysis and mass spectrometry to identify calcium-binding proteins exposed on the human sperm surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • recombinant
  • These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and chemically or genetically inactivated holotoxin. (mdpi.com)
  • Schematic diagram of recombinant PTPN9 protein (Adapted from Zhao et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • roles
  • This review will focus on the roles of three protein families in triglyceride biosynthesis: the GPAT, AGPAT, and lipin (PAP) enzymes. (physiology.org)
  • Evidence suggests that protein S -acylation may play important roles in a wide range of biological processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • interactions
  • Notably, reversibility is not shared by any other lipid modification, making S -acylation an attractive mechanism for modulation of protein activity and stability, protein-protein interactions, and shuttling of proteins between subcellular compartments in response to changes in signal transduction ( 1 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. (genes2cognition.org)
  • These results suggest that unlike α-SNAP, Csp plays a key role in the protein interactions close to the fusion process or fusion pore opening during Ca 2+ -regulated exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • sequence
  • Sequence and structure analyses showed thatVAT-Nn is related to numerous proteins including prokaryotic transcriptionfactors, metabolic enzymes, the protease cofactors UFD1 and PrlF, andaspartic proteinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This is a C- terminal sequence derived from the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, the death agonist. (hum-molgen.org)