• For example, in the liver, AMPK phosphorylates and inactivates both acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. (bmj.com)
  • Propionic aciduria is caused by an autosomal recessive disorder of propionyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (EC 6.4.1.3). (hmdb.ca)
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain from Rhizobium etli PC reveals that oxamate is positioned in the active site in an identical manner to the substrate, pyruvate, and kinetic data are consistent with the oxamate-stimulated decarboxylation of oxaloacetate proceeding through a simple ping-pong bi bi mechanism in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • 7 Increased gluconeogenesis results from the high availability of noncarbohydrate substrates (alanine, lactate, and glycerol in the liver and glutamine in the kidney) 9 and from the increased activity of gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase [PEPCK], fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and pyruvate carboxylase). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the pathway-committing step, PKSs act to condense successive units of malonyl-CoA with coumaroyl-CoA, forming a linear polyketide molecule before a cyclization reaction is carried out by the same PKS. (asm.org)
  • For STS, 3 units of malonyl-CoA are used in the chain lengthening and a C2 to C7 aldol cyclization is used to form stilbenes ( Fig. 1 ), while flavonoids are formed via a C6 to C1 Claisen reaction by CHS. (asm.org)
  • Crystal structure information is used to make substrate-switched amino acid ammonia lyase enzymes, including TALs, PALs and HALs. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety of coenzyme A can be transferred to enzymes in which 4'-phosphopantetheine is an essential cofactor for their biological activities (see 4'-phosphopantetheinylation ). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Mutants were made to test the proposed roles of these residues, and the enzymes were characterized kinetically with respect to native and non-native substrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Most acetylated proteins in the body have been modified by the addition of an acetate group that was donated by the coenzyme A thioester derivative, acetyl-CoA. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This suggests that dysfunction is a common feature of MCD deficiency during early development, but that severity is dependent on composition of dietary substrates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A recent report described the X-ray crystal structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor MAT and suggested active site residues which may be important for substrate selectivity [Keatinge-Clay, A. T., et al. (elsevier.com)
  • More specifically, the FAS catalysis mechanism consumes an acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to produce a Palmitoyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)