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  • occurs
  • One possibility, which occurs in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is by a substrate being attached to a flexible arm that moves between several active sites (not very likely). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the media through which mixed-signal noise coupling occurs is the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells during glycolysis and in mitochondria during the Krebs cycle under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first substrate-level phosphorylation occurs after the conversion of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and Pi and NAD+ to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate via glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second substrate-level phosphorylation occurs by dephosphorylating phosphoenolpyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, producing pyruvate and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Are substrate assays your forte? (bio.net)
  • Assays were performed in 0.10 M MOPS buffer, pH 8.0, containing NaCl (0.50 M), substrate 1 (0.31-120 μM), and E. coli alkaline phosphatase (13 ng·mL −1 , which was added at t = 30 s). (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of substrate 1 to two other assays, p -nitrophenyl phosphate and malachite green determined that the enzymatic step is rate-determining. (nih.gov)
  • Catalysis
  • Catalysis of the hydrolysis of substrate 1 by alkaline phosphatase, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Catalysis of the hydrolysis of substrate 1 by alkaline phosphatase, as monitored by absorbance spectroscopy and a malachite green assay for inorganic phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • wafer
  • Substrate mapping (or wafer mapping) is a process in which the performance of semiconductor devices on a substrate is represented by a map showing the performance as a colour-coded grid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wafer map is where the substrate map applies to an entire wafer, while a substrate map is mapping in other areas of the semiconductors process including frames, trays and strips. (wikipedia.org)
  • A substrate (also called a wafer) is a solid (usually planar) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleavage
  • The essential role of hemopexin carboxyl-domain exosites in the cleavage of noncollagenous substrates such as chemokines has also been recently revealed. (springer.com)
  • This article updates a previous review of the role of substrate recognition by MMP exosites in both preparing complex substrates, such as collagen, for cleavage and for tethering noncollagenous substrates to MMPs for more efficient proteolysis. (springer.com)
  • The potential role of collagen binding in regulating MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activation at the cell surface reveals unexpected consequences of substrate interactions that can lead to collagen cleavage and regulation of the activation and activity of downstream proteinases necessary to complete the collagenolytic cascade. (springer.com)
  • We have developed an alkaline phosphatase substrate in which the fluorescence of rhodamine is triggered on P-O bond cleavage in a process mediated by a "trimethyl lock. (nih.gov)
  • depends
  • The type of substrate used depends on the natural habitat of the species kept, for instance a desert dwelling species should be kept on a slate tile substrate, whereas a rainforest dwelling species should be kept on soil or bark chips. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Substrate reduction therapy addresses this failure by reducing the level of the substrate to a point where residual degradative activity is sufficient to prevent substrate accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-Indo-European substrate theory was first proposed by Sigmund Feist in 1932, who estimated that roughly a third of Proto-Germanic lexical items came from a non-Indo-European substrate and that the supposed reduction of the Proto-Germanic inflectional system was the result of pidginization with that substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • semiconductor
  • Note that a substrate in the field of electronics is either a semiconductor or an electrical insulator, depending on the fabrication process that is being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • It supports many possible substrate maps, including the ones named above. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many possible models for digital noise generation, the substrate impedance network, and the sensitivity of the (unintended) receiver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) are the Maglemosian and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Substrates that are designated "heat resistant" were developed on tissue then subjected to heat induced epitope retrival (HIER) using a pressure cooker technique (stained tissue was pressure cooked for 1 minute in Antigen Unmasking Solution, returned to room temperature, and rinsed in buffer). (vectorlabs.com)
  • Cellulose substrate Rock wool Requirements for animal cell and tissue culture are the same as described for plant cell, tissue and organ culture (In Vitro Culture Techniques: The Biotechnological Principles). (wikipedia.org)
  • analog
  • To elaborate, note that in mixed-signal circuits, both sensitive analog circuits and high-swing high-frequency noise injector digital circuits may be present on the same chip, leading to undesired signal coupling between these two types of circuit via the conductive substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example is phosphoramidate to the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme As a competitive inhibitor, substrate analogs occupy the same binding site as its analog, and decrease the intended substrate's efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of the substrate analog can be nullified by increasing the concentration of the originally intended substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this is the case, the substrate analog is called an inhibitory substrate analog, a suicide substrate, or even a Trojan horse substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Before: After: Sessile organism anchored in mat Animal grazing on mat Animals embedded in mat Animals burrowing just under mat =Microbial mat Firm, layered, anoxic, sulphidic substrate Animals moving on / in surface of sea-floor Loose, oxygenated upper substrate with burrowing animals The "Cambrian substrate revolution" or "Agronomic revolution", evidenced in trace fossils, is the diversification of animal burrowing during the early Cambrian period. (wikipedia.org)
  • aquarium
  • The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beneficial bacteria colonize all aquarium surfaces that are exposed to aerated water, including the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fine gravel (1-2 mm) is preferred by some aquarists because coarser substrates allow debris to settle within the gaps between grains, which is particularly difficult to clean in a planted aquarium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium carbonate substrates are poorly suited to aquaria housing most other freshwater aquarium fish, particularly river species, which are adapted to soft water. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • Although this substrate requires a nonenzymatic second step to manifest fluorescence, we demonstrated that the enzymatic first step limits the rate of fluorogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Substrate analogs can act as competitive inhibitors of an enzymatic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • In breeding tanks for egg-scattering species, a layer of marbles is sometimes used as a substrate, allowing the eggs to fall into the gaps between the marbles where the parents cannot eat them. (wikipedia.org)
  • variations
  • The map is a convenient representation of the variation in performance across the substrate, since the distribution of those variations may be a clue as to their cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • The word substrate comes from the Latin sub - stratum meaning 'the level below' and refers to any material existing or extracted from beneath the topsoil, including sand, chalk and clay. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrate of a vivarium refers to the material used on the floor of the enclosure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the cases in which an insulator such as silicon oxide or aluminum oxide is used as the substrate, a thin layer of semiconducting material, usually pure silicon, is placed on top of the oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the manufacture of ICs, the substrate material is usually formed into or cut out as thin discs called wafers, into which the individual electronic devices (transistors, etc.) are etched, deposited, or otherwise fabricated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate is used in a converting process such as printing or coating to generally describe the base material onto which, e.g. images, will be printed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stream substrate (sediment) is the material that rests at the bottom of a stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which culture or cultures may have contributed the substrate material is an ongoing subject of academic debate and study. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • ATP can be generated by substrate-level phosphorylation in mitochondria in a pathway that is independent from the proton motive force. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The initial process supported by substrate maps was inkless binning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of polymer substrate creation was developed by the Australia CSIRO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation and phosphorylation are not coupled in the process of substrate-level phosphorylation, and reactive intermediates are most often gained in the course of oxidation processes in catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Corning Synthemax vitronectin self-coating substrate is a unique, animal-free, synthetic vitronectin-based peptide containing the RGD motif and flanking sequences. (corning.com)
  • types
  • Some common types of filtration involving the substrate include the undergravel filter and the deep sand bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, a lower layer of richer substrate such as potting soil, peat, vermiculite, or certain types of clay are used as a source of iron and trace elements for plant roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a large number of substrates which may be adhesive (e.g. plastic, glass, palladium, metallic surfaces, etc.) or non-adhesive (e.g. agar, agarose, etc.) types may be used as discussed below: Plastic as a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate is used in all types of vivarium and holds an important role in the well being of the inhabitants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of substrate can be used to hold humidity, this is essential when keeping certain types of rainforest dwelling species that require high humidity levels during shedding and food digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It claims that the elements of the Common Germanic vocabulary and syntactical forms, which do not seem to have cognates in other Indo-European languages, suggest that Proto-Germanic may have been either a creole or a contact language that subsumed a non-Indo-European substrate language or a hybrid of two quite different Indo-European languages, from the centum and satem types, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The substrate is inherently the surface to which a liquid- or paste-applied product is chemically bonded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before use they are treated with gamma radiation or electric arc simply to develop charges on the surface of substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • dark-colored substrates, for example, are considered by some to be better for fish, as the fish display more colorfully by comparison, and are less likely to behave timidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, encrusting algae that lives on a rock (its substrate) can be itself a substrate for an animal that lives on top of the algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, while fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) can hydrolyze the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide at comparable rates in vitro, genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH elevates anandamide but not 2-AG, suggesting that 2-AG is not an endogenous, in vivo substrate for FAAH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another example, the N-acyl taurines (NATs) are observed to increase dramatically in FAAH-disrupted animals, but are actually poor in vitro FAAH substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • A neural substrate is a term used in neuroscience to indicate a part of the nervous or brain system that underlies a specific behavior or psychological state. (wikipedia.org)
  • It doesn't indicate the amount of nutrients the substrate contains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, substrates can also have a variety of direct effects on water quality by releasing substances into the water, absorbing substances from the water, or reacting chemically with substances from other sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrate(s), however, is/are converted to product(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the Minoan loanwords found in Mycenaean Greek (i.e. words for architecture, metals and metallurgy, music, use of domestic species, social institutions, weapons, weaving) are the result of the socio-cultural and economic interactions between the Minoans and Mycenaeans during the Bronze Age and are therefore part of a linguistic adstrate in Greek rather than a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • 6. The package substrate structure as claimed in claim 5, further comprising a plurality of wires, a plurality of solder balls and at least one second chip, wherein the at least one second chip is stacked on the first chip, the solder balls are disposed between the first chip and a part of the metal studs, the wires connect the second chip to another part of the metal studs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In an integrated circuit, a signal can couple from one node to another via the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another form of substrate-level phosphorylation is also seen in working skeletal muscles and the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • Alternatively, in the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, the battle-axe people may be seen as an already "kurganized" culture, built on the substrate of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficient
  • Most ATP is generated by oxidative phosphorylation in aerobic or anaerobic respiration while substrate-level phosphorylation provides a quicker, less efficient source of ATP, independent of external electron acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Because calcium carbonate, the primary component of these substrates, increases water hardness and pH, these are used most often for hard water species, such as those for African rift lake cichlids or for saltwater fish and invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Package
  • 2. The package substrate structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the non-conductive metal complex comprises palladium (Pd), chromium, or copper complex. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The package substrate structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first selective-electroplating epoxy compound is adapted to be selectively irradiated by laser or ultraviolet (UV) light to selectively metallize the non-conductive metal complex. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The package substrate structure as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: at least one first chip, electrically connected with the metal studs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The package substrate structure as claimed in claim 4, wherein the first chip directly disposed on the metal studs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • language
  • The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-Indo-European substrate hypothesis attempts to explain the anomalous features of Proto-Germanic as a result of creolization between an Indo-European and a non-Indo-European language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hawkins, moreover, asserts that more than a third of the native Germanic lexicon is of non-Indo-European origin, and he again points to the hypothetical substrate language as the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The substrate enables the catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatase to be measured with high sensitivity and accuracy. (nih.gov)