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  • hESCs
  • HESCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the tremendous therapeutic promise of HESC research, the research has met with heated opposition because the harvesting of HESCs involves the destruction of the human embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • Scientists recently succeeded in converting adult human skin cells into cells that appear to have the properties of HESCs by activating four genes in the adult cells (Takahashi et al . (stanford.edu)
  • 2007). The reprogrammed cells-"induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPSCs)-could ultimately eliminate the need for HESCs. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • It is worth noting that this argument, if sound, would not suffice to show that all or even most HESC research is impermissible, since most investigators engaged in HESC research do not participate in the derivation of HESCs but instead use cell lines that researchers who performed the derivation have made available. (stanford.edu)
  • To show that researchers who use but do not derive HESCs participate in an immoral activity, one would further need to establish their complicity in the destruction of embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • therapeutic
  • Human cloning has moved closer to reality, and even therapeutic cloning is fraught with ethical perils. (washingtontimes.com)
  • One of the "grails" of therapeutic stem cell biology is the ability to confer these special properties of the embryonic stem cell onto an easily accessible, differentiated cell from the adult (such as a skin or blood cell) without the creation of an embryo as a necessary intermediate step. (yale.edu)
  • 2) The multiple therapeutic achievements that have been demonstrated using adult stem cells, and the promise they hold for other diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders or diabetes, make efforts to support this fruitful avenue of investigation an urgent matter (3). (vatican.va)
  • Embryonic stem cell experiments have not yet produced a single unqualified therapeutic success, not even in animal models (5). (vatican.va)
  • Moreover, a non-human primate model of cloning, which would be necessary in order to conduct experiments to establish safety before attempting therapeutic experiments in human beings, has yet to be developed (10). (vatican.va)
  • 5) The health benefits of therapeutic cloning are hypothetical, in as much as the method itself remains mainly a hypothesis. (vatican.va)
  • Indeed, even putting aside fundamental ethical considerations other than the patient's expectations, the present state of 'therapeutic cloning' precludes, now and in the near future, any clinical application. (vatican.va)
  • 15 - 17 The highly attractive nature of the iPSC models, wherein iPSCs generated from patients' somatic cells are used as disease models in petri dish, has generated enormous interest in the potential use of iPSCs in deciphering the molecular basis of human diseases, identifying novel drug targets, and providing new therapeutic approaches. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 , 19 Nevertheless, persisting safety concerns have somewhat shifted the research focus from the direct therapeutic utility of iPSCs in humans to modeling of human diseases to gain mechanistic insights, identify therapeutic targets, and screen for drug toxicity. (ahajournals.org)
  • ethical
  • Information on presidential actions and legislative activities related to the ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning is provided, as well as relevant Web sites. (unt.edu)
  • Above all, it is universally agreed that the use of adult stem cells does not entail any ethical problems. (vatican.va)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells, with their ability to generate all, or nearly all, of the cell types in the adult body and a possible source of cells genetically identical to the donor, hold great promise but face ethical and political hurdles for human use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • trophoblast
  • Even though the highest expression level of KLF6 has been detected in human and mice placenta, its function in trophoblast physiology is still unknown. (jove.com)
  • The major cell type of the fetal portion of the placenta is the trophoblast. (jove.com)
  • Primary mouse placental trophoblast cells are a useful tool for studying normal and abnormal placental development, and unlike cell lines, may be isolated and used to study trophoblast at specific stages of pregnancy. (jove.com)
  • In addition, primary cultures of trophoblast from transgenic mice may be used to study the role of particular genes in placental cells. (jove.com)
  • 1 , in which a percoll gradient is used to obtain a relatively pure trophoblast cell population from isolated mouse placentas. (jove.com)
  • It is similar to the more widely used methods for human trophoblast cell isolation 2-3 . (jove.com)
  • For example, when the trophoblast cells of the placenta fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblast, the syncytiotrophoblast is better able to transport nutrients and hormones across the maternal-fetal barrier than unfused trophoblasts 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • The derivation of HESC cultures requires the removal of the trophoblast. (stanford.edu)
  • oocytes
  • Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytoplasmic factors present in mature, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes have a unique ability to reset the identity of transplanted somatic cell nuclei to the embryonic state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Though the underlying cause of early developmental arrest remains unclear, most of these studies involving human oocytes applied SCNT protocols developed for nonprimate species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, we reasoned that, similar to other mammals, human MII oocytes must contain reprogramming activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • donor cell
  • The birth of 'Dolly', the first mammal cloned from an adult donor cell, has sparked a flurry of research activities to improve cloning technology and to understand the underlying mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • 1998
  • ARF develops predominantly due to the injury and necrosis of renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) as a result of ischemic or toxic insult ( Lieberthal and Nigam, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cause of death subsequent to ARF is generally the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, frequently secondary to bacterial infection or sepsis, resulting in cardiovascular collapse and ischemic damage to vital organs, culminating in multiple organ failure ( Breen and Bihari, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • biomedical
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • When may embryos be destroyed to advance biomedical progress? (scribd.com)
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Research
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. (unt.edu)
  • With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • Such a technology would not only provide an ethically acceptable alternative to research cloning, but it would also offer a method to interrogate the biological basis of "sternness," the constellation of gene expression and protein signaling that underlie self-renewal and pluripotency. (yale.edu)
  • These promising advances stand in stark contrast to the earlier revelation that reports of highly efficient derivation of several new human ESC lines through research cloning by South Korean researchers were false. (yale.edu)
  • Nevertheless, it remains clear that clever and innovative efforts to generate pluripotent stem cells through research cloning as well as through alternative methods continue unabated. (yale.edu)
  • In this Article, I discuss the recent development of "alternative" methodsthat is, techniques that do not involve research cloning-to derive pluripotent stem cells, most prominently among them, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (yale.edu)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • However, the Holy See applauds and encourages research using adult stem cells, because it is completely compatible with respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • The rising concept of cell-based therapeutics has provided a framework around which new approaches are being generated, and its combination with advances in stem cell research stands to bring both fields to clinical fruition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • Achieving successful techniques for human ESC research is fundamentally dependent on preliminary work using experimental animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell/sera free murine ESC harvest and propagation are feasible procedures for an embryology laboratory and await refinements for translation to human medical research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pluripotency
  • Despite intense investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate pluripotency, the process of initial fate commitment of embryonic stem (ES) cells is still poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • advances
  • These advances have not been without considerable challenges both in terms of efficiency, which typically is less than 1% of the transduced cells, and safety, because of the use of viral vectors and expression of oncoproteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • limitations
  • This chapter focuses on the methods and techniques available for the production of patient-specific pluripotent cells, the promises and limitations of each technology, and a discussion of the current progress towards this goal. (stembook.org)
  • dignity
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • 13) From an anthropological standpoint, most people recognize that cloning is offensive to human dignity. (vatican.va)
  • The subject matter of the 'One of Us' Initiative concerns the 'juridical protection of the dignity, the right to life and of the integrity of every human being from conception in the areas of EU competence in which such protection is of particular importance'. (europa.eu)
  • Under the main objectives the organisers state that 'the human embryo deserves respect to its dignity and integrity. (europa.eu)
  • pregnancy
  • Had it been the latter (a technique almost universally condemned as unethical), the researchers could have attempted to initiate a pregnancy by implanting the cloned embryos in a womb. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Maternal Thyroid Deficiency During Pregnancy and Subsequent Neuropsychological Development of the Child' (1999), by James E. Haddow et al. (asu.edu)
  • recipients
  • To demonstrate the approach, mice ubiquitously expressing Cre recombinase served as recipients of stem cells transfected with a construct to express luciferase downstream of a floxed stop codon. (jove.com)
  • genes
  • This asexual form of reproduction would bypass the usual 'shuffling' of genes that makes every individual unique in his/her genome and would arbitrarily fix the genotype in one particular configuration, (12) with predictable negative genetic consequences for the human genepool. (vatican.va)
  • CMAH is one of several human-specific genes whose function has been lost by disruption or deletion of the coding frame. (jove.com)
  • Gene
  • When cells expressing this gene fuse with cells expressing the Cre recombinase protein, the LoxP sites are cleaved and the stop signal is excised allowing transcription of luciferase. (jove.com)
  • The successful completion of the cell division cycle relies in large part on the appropriate temporal control of gene expression. (asm.org)
  • generate
  • A number of studies have successfully demonstrated the viability of theoretical proposals previously offered by President Bush's Council on Bioethics to generate alternative sources of pluripotent cells, at least in the experimental setting. (yale.edu)
  • This chapter reviews the current progress towards this first step, focusing on the techniques used to generate pluripotent cells, the advantages that each offers and the challenges that must be overcome. (stembook.org)
  • approaches
  • That observers such as I can assemble forecasts based on present ongoing work in the scientific and biotechnology communities and order the likely near future clinical availability of various approaches to human rejuvenation. (fightaging.org)