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  • signal transduction
  • The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. (chemeurope.com)
  • Most signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling molecules (or ligands ) to cell-surface receptors that face outward from the plasma membrane and trigger events inside the cell. (chemeurope.com)
  • Phospholipase D (PLD) and heterotrimeric G-proteins are involved in plant signal transduction pathways at the plasma membrane. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Through these interactions, PH domains play a role in recruiting proteins to different membranes, thus targeting them to appropriate cellular compartments or enabling them to interact with other components of the signal transduction pathways. (embl.de)
  • adaptor
  • 3 and 4 ) and many complex eukaryotic signaling networks involve proteins containing multiple domains with catalytic, adaptor, effector, and/or stimulator functions ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Members of the Ras
  • Ras and members of the Ras-related family of small GTP-binding proteins are involved in many biological functions. (ubc.ca)
  • 0\QQa The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver, Canada & XrnfTt O O p l Columbia http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html 8/15/2002 ABSTRACT Ras and members of the Ras-related family of small GTP-binding proteins are involved in many biological functions. (ubc.ca)
  • exocytosis
  • Ral-mediated exocytosis is also involved such biological processes as platelet activation, immune cell functions, neuronal plasticity, and regulation of insulin action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ral subfamily mediate GTP-dependent exocytosis , Rap proteins are involved in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion , Rad proteins play a role in remodelling cell shape and the cell cycle, and the Rheb subfamily, which is thought to regulate cell growth and cell-cycle progression via the mTOR pathway. (mechanobio.info)
  • inhibitor
  • Similar binding affinities of AKT, MEK1, MEK2, STAT3 and mTOR were calculated for honokiol (range from -9.0 [+ or -]0.01 to 7.40 [+ or -]0.01 kcal/mol) compared to corresponding control inhibitor compounds for these signal transducers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • effectors
  • To search for other effectors in C. elegans, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening for LET-60-binding proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Often located near the plasma membrane , Ras proteins are activated by extracellular stimuli, whereupon they interact with downstream effectors to regulate signalling pathways for diverse biological processes, in particular cell growth, survival and differentiation. (mechanobio.info)
  • nuclear
  • Cytoskeletal proteins such as dynamin (see IPR001401 ), Caenorhabditis elegans kinesin-like protein unc-104 (see IPR001752 ), spectrin beta-chain, syntrophin (2 PH domains) and S. cerevisiae nuclear migration protein NUM1. (embl.de)
  • extracellular
  • Bound to the intracellular face of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), G-proteins mediate cytoplasmic transduction of extracellular stimuli. (emdmillipore.com)
  • For example, the majority of human extracellular proteins are multidomain in character (for reviews see refs. (pnas.org)
  • Also, intracellular signaling cascades can be triggered through cell-substratum interactions, as in the case of integrins , which bind ligands found within the extracellular matrix. (chemeurope.com)
  • Together with the absence of immunochemical cross-reactivity, these enzymatic properties demonstrate that the membrane-bound enzyme is distinct from the extracellular enzyme recently characterized and cloned from the same bacterial strain [C. Ogino et al. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • mitochondrial
  • Moreover, RalA specifically interacts with Exo84 and Sec5 to regulate transport of membrane proteins in polarized epithelial cells and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, as well as mitochondrial fission for cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Cytoplasmic signaling, especially in the lipid signaling and G-protein signaling pathways, is dominated by protein phosphorylation by kinases, which represent one of the most common targets of therapeutics, targeted in about 25% of drug discovery programs worldwide. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Because it is difficult to distinguish those domains that perform cytoplasmic signaling roles from those that primarily function in transport, protein sorting, or cell cycle regulation, and for reasons of brevity, we shall discuss those domains that fall under two categories. (pnas.org)
  • catalytic
  • These may include the global conservation of catalytic mechanisms (in the case of enzymes), specific binding to substrates and cofactors, as well as the interaction with other proteins in processes such as cell signaling, the regulation of reactions and the formation of macromolecular complexes. (pnas.org)
  • membrane
  • Integrin signaling also induces formation of a complex of p130Cas, the adapter protein Crk, and a third molecule, DOCK 180, that is required for membrane ruffling, a component of cell migration ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of novel membrane-bound phospholipase D from Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum, possessing only hydrolytic activity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A membrane-bound phospholipase D (PLD) has been identified and isolated in a soluble form from an actinomycete, Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • receptor
  • Ser/Thr protein kinases such as the Akt/Rac family, the beta-adrenergic receptor kinases, the mu isoform of PKC and the trypanosomal NrkA family. (embl.de)
  • RESIDUES
  • Mutational studies were performed to investigate the contribution of selected interface residues to the binding affinity. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This domain, which could be narrowed down to 100 amino acid residues, associated in vitro with human Ha-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner and competed with yeast adenylyl cyclase for binding Ha-Ras. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The divergence accumulated during the evolution of protein families translates into their internal organization as subfamilies, and it is directly reflected in the characteristic patterns of differentially conserved residues. (pnas.org)
  • A commonly accepted working hypothesis is that whereas fully conserved positions are related to functional features common to all the members of the family, these other residues are related to functional specificity (e.g., binding of different cofactors). (pnas.org)