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  • iliac crest
  • According to the World Health Organisation's data gathering protocol, the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest, using a stretch‐resistant tape that provides a constant 100 g tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • hips
  • Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies who carry more weight around the hips. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratios
  • The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) states that women with waist-hip ratios of more than 0.8, and men with more than 1.0, are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat distribution has primarily been studied in individuals with Cushing's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal
  • Also, in case the waist is convex rather than concave, such as is the case in pregnancy, different body types, and obesity, the waist may be measured at a horizontal level 1 inch above the navel. (wikipedia.org)