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  • radiation exposure
  • The assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the specific activity of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash that remains after combustion . (rsc.org)
  • Across the population studied, it appeared that women overall tended to have higher cumulative doses of radiation during the study period, and that, generally, the older you were, the more radiation exposure you'd likely had in the three-year period. (time.com)
  • The fact that exposure to even low-dose radiation has been linked with the development of certain types of cancer, including leukemia, underscores the importance of gaining a better understanding of the cumulative effect of low-grade radiation exposure during imaging procedures, the authors stress. (time.com)
  • Additionally, as each illness may be impacted differently by the information gained by imaging, it is important to conduct further research to determine when the benefits of the minor radiation exposure definitely outweigh the risks. (time.com)
  • In the meantime, before more study results are available, the authors emphasize the importance of improving education-for doctors and patients alike-about the potential harm of low level radiation exposure. (time.com)
  • While current recommendations for radiation exposure call for keeping it "as low as reasonably achievable," the authors point out that, maintaining this standard hinges upon treating physicians having a thorough understanding of not only the possible benefits, but also the risks posed by imaging techniques. (time.com)
  • The type of ionizing radiation exposure varies among occupations, with differing contributions from photons, neutrons, and α- and β-particles. (nap.edu)
  • Studies of populations with occupational radiation exposure are of relevance for radiation protection in that most workers have received protracted low-level exposures (a type of exposure of considerable importance for radiation protection of the public and of workers). (nap.edu)
  • In addition, the bystander effects associated with low level radiation exposure cause real problems at the cellular level and this unfortunately translates into an increased risk for cancer. (phoenixrising.me)
  • They had identified exactly the same unique mitochondria characteristics to be due to the direct effects of low level radiation exposure. (phoenixrising.me)
  • The leukemia mortality was found to be related to both internal and external radiation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • prenatal
  • This evaluation addressed: physical growth and dysmorphology, psychological development and behavior, and prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors for FASD via maternal interviews. (eurekalert.org)
  • We found limited evidence of an association between very-low level prenatal mercury exposure and behaviors in children, with an exception of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Children's Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives. (redorbit.com)
  • We used Poisson regression to analyze births and malformations to estimate the association between maternal exposure to VOCs adjusting for sex, mother's age, race, education, parity, and prenatal care. (nih.gov)
  • adults
  • On average, workers in the NIOSH study had BPA levels in their urine approximately 70 times higher than adults in the U.S. general population (based on data from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative sample of the U.S general population). (emsl.com)
  • In general, fetuses may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of exposure to environmental toxicants because they have rapidly developing organ system, different pharmacokinetics and higher exposure dose per body surface area compared to adults. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total nitrite and nitrate (NO(2)(-) /NO(3)(-)) levels were measured both in plasma and in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in 949 adults. (unibas.ch)
  • In adults, increased BPA exposure has been associated with changes in hormone concentrations, sperm quality, and endometriosis. (redorbit.com)
  • NIOSH
  • Earlier this year, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published information about occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). (emsl.com)
  • Exposure is a concern because BPA may mimic some of the hormone-effects of estrogen, reports NIOSH. (emsl.com)
  • Back in 2013 and 2014, NIOSH undertook a study to measure BPA exposure in U.S. manufacturing workers. (emsl.com)
  • The agency reports, "The NIOSH study included six companies that either made BPA, BPA-based resins, or made and used BPA-filled waxes. (emsl.com)
  • A second group of studies was conducted at the Y-12 nuclear weapons fabrication facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation, by researchers at ORAU, UNC, the University of Michigan, and NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • A recent health hazard evaluation by NIOSH (3.1.10) did not find evidence of cyanide exposure in current K-25 workers. (cdc.gov)
  • mortality
  • A number of large, combined multinational studies and analyses of mortality among nuclear industry workers have been carried out in order to address these issues (Cardis and others 2000). (nap.edu)
  • From 1948 to 1975, nine out of eleven epidemiological studies show significant excess mortality from respiratory cancer among diverse occupations exposed to various inorganic arsenicals and demonstrate that such exposure is carcinogenic in three different tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Two of the studies show concomitant significant excess mortality from lymphatic cancer and one from skin cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels was associated with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first group of studies consists of mortality investigations among workers at the X-10 facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted by researchers at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), and the University of North Carolina (UNC). (cdc.gov)
  • Workers at the X-10 facility were included in several multi-site investigations, as well as internationally pooled site studies designed to estimate leukemia and overall cancer mortality risks from exposure to external ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • A variety of study designs were used to evaluate the association between mortality and exposure to internal radiation or chemicals (e.g., phosgene gas, mercury) among white males. (cdc.gov)
  • Other studies found no significant elevation in mortality among workers compared to the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • This study did not find significantly increased mortality with increased internal radiation dose, although there appeared to be an exposure effect on mortality for workers hired at older ages. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers employed at the K-25 gaseous diffusion facility have been studied for mortality associated with exposure to uranium dust and-separately-to various chemicals, including epoxy resin, powdered nickel, and nickel oxides. (cdc.gov)
  • epidemiological studies
  • Observation: entities, activities and organisation of a mechanism can be found by observation techniques such as imaging technologies, autopsy, (molecular) epidemiological studies, and social surveys (for mechanisms that include parts of the social environment as components, or which are sensitive to sociological variables like socioeconomic status, parental or neighbourhood effects). (springer.com)
  • genes
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease characterized by impaired lung function and airway obstruction resulting from interactions between multiple genes and multiple environmental exposures. (lifelines.nl)
  • Further research should determine whether the identified genes are true susceptibility loci for occupational exposures and whether these SNP-by-exposure interactions consequently contribute to the development of COPD. (lifelines.nl)
  • Our results indicate that different sets of genes are used in immune responses to viruses versus other pathogens, and these antiviral genes are regulated by two very distinct processes-expression and DNA methylation," explained David Galbraith, graduate student in entomology at Penn State University and lead author on the study. (thecre.com)
  • Genes frequently studied for their influence on mercury toxicokinetics were mainly related to the metabolism of glutathione, but the results were contradictory for most of the genes. (springer.com)
  • inhalation
  • Workers in this study were likely exposed to BPA primarily through inhalation and dermal exposure," said Joe Frasca, Senior Vice President of Marketing at EMSL Analytical, Inc. "This research is concerning for tens of thousands of workers who come into contact with BPA on a daily basis. (emsl.com)
  • serum
  • Outcome variables were self-reported physician diagnosis of gout and serum urate level. (annals.org)
  • Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] and cognitive performance. (ugent.be)
  • In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. (ugent.be)
  • Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020) for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045) for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. (ugent.be)
  • Consistently with experimental animal data, PBDE exposure was associated with changes in the motor function and the serum levels of the thyroid hormones. (ugent.be)
  • largely
  • In a commentary published in today's PLOS Biology journal he summarizes key research on low levels of exposure to lead and other toxics and argues, in largely ignoring such exposures, most health and regulatory agencies are not fully protecting public health. (organicconsumers.org)
  • arsenic
  • Case study 4: Inorganic arsenic - ambient level approach to the control of occupational cancerogenic exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Data do not reveal a definite no effect exposure level and, because of the environmental ubiquity of arsenic, (7440382) it is concluded that the arsenic body burden of workers should not be occupationally increased above that produced by the natural ambient level. (cdc.gov)
  • Association between exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels and incident cardiovascular disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LIMITATION: Direct measurement of individual arsenic levels in drinking water was unavailable. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bates MN, Rey OA, Biggs ML, Hopenhayn C, Moore LE, Kalman D et al (2004) Case-control study of bladder cancer and exposure to arsenic in Argentina. (springer.com)
  • Bustaffa E, Minichilli F, Andreassi MG, Carone S, Coi A, Cori L et al (2014) Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. (springer.com)
  • populations
  • In their discussion, the authors cited and reviewed several national and international studies of military, occupational and civilian populations done since the 1960s that reported similar findings to theirs. (google.com)
  • Neurotoxicity associated with exposure to IHg has mainly been studied in highly exposed populations. (springer.com)
  • A number of studies conducted by ORNL, ORAU, and UNC have combined World War II-era worker populations from the three Oak Ridge facilities referred to previously, along with the worker population for the Tennessee Eastman Corporation. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus
  • Thus, only when clinical study evidence is high quality can it significantly support a claim about the existence of a mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Damage
  • Both human and animal studies have shown that heavy and binge drinking are the most highly associated with FAS damage," said Philip A. May, professor of sociology, and family and community medicine, at The University of New Mexico. (eurekalert.org)
  • Genetics
  • This study evaluated the associations between biological markers in the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and four environmental exposures among subjects examined in the second survey (2003-2007) of the French Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). (unibas.ch)
  • We conducted a PubMed search in September 2014 and retrieved 14 studies on the influence of genetics on mercury toxicokinetics and ten on neurological effects of gene-mercury interactions. (springer.com)
  • effects
  • But there is uncertainty about the effects of mercury at levels below the reported threshold which we defined as very-low. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biological monitoring and health effects of low-level exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: a cross-sectional study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PURPOSE To examine the value of urinary 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) in a population of workers exposed to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and to look for health effects of exposure to this organic solvent. (semanticscholar.org)
  • No clear and consistent health effects could be associated with NMP exposure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Additionally, it highlights the need for medical providers to be aware of the harmful effects of BPA exposures so they may counsel families appropriately about prevention. (redorbit.com)
  • Editor's Note: For more information about the study, Assessment of Chronic Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Health, see here . (thecre.com)
  • The study concludes, "To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies subjected to worse-case scenarios as well as normal dietary exposure (5μg/kg) to imidacloprid. (thecre.com)
  • Prospective observational studies with individual exposure measures are needed to study low-level As exposure effects. (springer.com)
  • however, a separate study found evidence among the exposed of significant declines in neurological function, with effects remaining for more than 30 years after exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • concentrations
  • Thirty workers in a dockyard exposed to concentrations of styrene lower than the TLV-TWA of 50 ppm and 30 control workers not subject to exposure but employed by the same company were subjected to three psychometric tests on one Monday morning and evening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033), compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. (ugent.be)
  • Cured meat, chlorine products, PM(10) and NO(2) concentrations were not associated with NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) levels. (unibas.ch)
  • biological
  • Of the 7 replicated SNPs that interacted with one of the occupational exposures, several identified loci were plausible candidates that might be involved in biological pathways leading to lung function impairment, such as PCDH9 and GALNT13. (lifelines.nl)
  • decrease
  • m2 mRNA levels showed a transient increase followed by a decrease to 30% of prestimulation levels after 6 hr but, in contrast to the m3 transcripts, this depression was followed by a transient rise to 270% of prestimulation levels after 24 hr before declining to normal levels by 72 hr after stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Families can decrease their exposure to BPA by eating fresh fruit and vegetables (as opposed to processed and canned foods) and by decreasing use of plastic food storage containers," said Sathyanarayana. (redorbit.com)
  • risk
  • Not only is there no apparent safe levels or thresholds, but at the lowest levels of exposure, there is a steeper increase in the risk," said author Dr. Bruce Lanphear, a professor and researcher at Simon Fraser University. (organicconsumers.org)
  • New findings indicate that drinking levels among some women in Italy are similar to those of high-risk drinkers in the new world, reflected in coexisting levels of FAS and FASD. (eurekalert.org)
  • For most people, their primary source of exposure to BPA is through their diet, but workers who manufacture products that contain BPA can also be at risk of exposure. (emsl.com)
  • Lead toxicity can lead to gouty arthritis (gout), but whether the low lead exposure in the contemporary general population confers risk for gout is not known. (annals.org)
  • After adjustment for renal function, diabetes, diuretic use, hypertension, race, body mass index, income, and education level, the highest BLL quartile was associated with a 3.6-fold higher risk for gout and a 1.9-fold higher risk for hyperuricemia compared with the lowest quartile. (annals.org)
  • Background Benzene exposure has been associated with increased risk of leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. (cmlc.ml)
  • chronic
  • Differential regulation of muscarinic receptor mRNA levels in neuroblastoma cells by chronic agonist exposure: a comparative polymerase chain reaction study. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Existing studies are sparse for other lymphohaematopoietic cancer subtypes, such as myeloproliferative disease (MPD) and the related chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). (cmlc.ml)
  • In the past, we talked about the extraordinary emerging idea that there seems to be a correlation between marginally elevated gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels (GGTP levels) in serology (this would be in the upper quintile of even the normal range of this liver enzyme), and the association with overall chronic disease. (jeffreybland.com)
  • toxicity
  • In the U.S., there currently is no occupational exposure limit for BPA, but, back in 2013, California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) added BPA to the list of chemicals known to the State of California to cause reproductive toxicity for purposes of Proposition 65. (emsl.com)
  • Study of the neurobehavioural toxicity of styrene at low levels of exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • doses
  • Yet, while older people had greater total exposure, the authors point out that 40% of women and 50% of men under the age of 50 were experiencing very high annual doses of radiation, in excess of 20mSv, or millisievert, the unit of measurement for doses of radiation. (time.com)
  • maternal
  • This study was supported, in part, by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through a cooperative agreement grant to NYSDOH titled "Program to Conduct and Coordinate Site-Specific Activities" (U50/ATU200002) and by New York State's Maternal and Child Health Services (MCH) block grant through the NYSDOH Maternal and Child Health Graduate Assistant Program. (nih.gov)
  • examine
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically examine the relationship between MPD and quantitative benzene exposure. (cmlc.ml)
  • Found
  • We believe this to be very important since radiation not only adversely impacts STAT-1 but it has also been found to cause myelodysplasia as well as myeloid leukemia, the very things we have been studying. (phoenixrising.me)
  • Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, one study found an association between BPA exposure in pregnancy and abnormal acting out behaviors in female children. (redorbit.com)
  • The study found significant relationships between exposure levels and symptoms. (google.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Maryland subjected colonies to imidacloprid, the world's most commonly used insecticide, and found it had no real effect on colony numbers when used at recommended levels. (thecre.com)
  • In evaluating the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data (the largest database that connects together health indices and nutrition status of the population), it was found that there was no direct correlation-I want to emphasize, NO direct correlation-between type 2 diabetes and obesity in the absence of elevated normal levels of GGTP in the serology. (jeffreybland.com)
  • In one study, lung cancer was found to be significantly elevated in workers employed for longer periods or hired at an older age. (cdc.gov)
  • Updated follow-up studies of these workers found lung cancer remained elevated compared to the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • A separate study found no significant association between brain cancer and exposure to either chemicals or internal or external radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • results
  • While we have still not untangled or answered this relationship, our study results do show that there are individuals in Italy who drink heavily enough to produce a rate of FAS which needs our attention. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results were usually better in the evening than in the morning in both groups, which proves the lack of acute intoxication at the end of the day at this level of exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results suggest the existence of minor but significant organic mental disorders in the subjects exposed to a mean dose of 30 ppm in this study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results are inconsistent with those of several recent studies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This begins with an account of how a mechanistic study provides evidence for features of specific mechanism hypotheses, laying out a three step procedure of evaluating: (1) the methods used, (2) the implementation of the methods, and (3), the stability of the results. (springer.com)
  • harmful
  • Some of the most common, extensively tested chemicals - radon, lead, particulate matter, asbestos, tobacco and benzene - appear to be proportionally more harmful to a person's health at the lower levels of exposure, according to a new review of decades of research. (organicconsumers.org)
  • behavior
  • In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in life can lead to a variety of abnormalities in early development of the brain, behavior, prostate gland and breast tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • Workers
  • A total of 78 workers participated in the study. (emsl.com)
  • Long-term exposure to IHg was associated with tremor and abnormal motor function in chloralkali workers [ 8 ], as well as decreased peripheral nerve function in dental professionals [ 9 ], but only some of the IHg-exposed workers developed neurotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Studies have shown workers handling nickel powder had rates of buccal cavity and pharynx cancer deaths almost 20 times as high as other workers. (cdc.gov)
  • environmental
  • Lanphear, a renowned environmental health expert, has for years been a leading voice on how low levels of lead can have big impacts on kids' health. (organicconsumers.org)
  • One company that has been at the forefront of testing for BPA to prevent exposures is EMSL Analytical, Inc. EMSL scientists test for BPA to help identify occupational and environmental exposure risks as well as testing food and beverage packaging for its presence. (emsl.com)
  • Two exposure areas were identified based on environmental sampling data: one area was primarily contaminated with TCE, and the other with PCE. (nih.gov)
  • significantly
  • However, a new study from the University of Maryland shows that the world's most common insecticide - imidacloprid - does not significantly harm honey bee colonies at real-world dosage levels. (thecre.com)
  • chemicals
  • For toxic chemicals without a threshold … we will inevitably fail to prevent most deaths, diseases, and disabilities, like obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, until we expand our focus to include population strategies that target people who have low-to-moderate exposures," he wrote. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Background: Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. (ugent.be)
  • scientists
  • Articles were also identified from UNSCEAR (2000b), from references cited in papers reviewed, and from direct contacts with some of the main scientists who have been involved with studies of occupational exposures in recent years. (nap.edu)
  • human
  • In human studies, exposure to BPA early in life has not been studied extensively. (redorbit.com)
  • All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. (springer.com)
  • worker
  • We pooled data from three petroleum worker nested case-control studies to address this gap. (cmlc.ml)