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  • ligands
  • Gangliosides are involved in cell-signaling functions as ligands and as modulators of receptor activity ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • NKT cells that express the semi-invariant TCR are innate-like lymphocytes whose functions are regulated by self and foreign glycolipid ligands presented by the Ag-presenting, MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. (jimmunol.org)
  • Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, there are outstanding progresses in the function analyses of MBP ligands, O -mannose type glycans, GPI-anchors in cytokine receptors, GAGs of proteoglycans in neurons, glycolipids in nervous systems and α1,4GlcNAc in H. pylori infection. (jcgg.jp)
  • pathogenesis
  • These results and the finding of enhanced expression of GM3 synthase in models of insulin resistance have led to the suggestion that GM3 ganglioside overexpression may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through a negative modulation on insulin receptor signaling ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Finally, this review considers the question of what would be required to prove a definite role for autoreactivity against proteolipids and glycolipids in the pathogenesis of MS. (hindawi.com)
  • glucose
  • 2008 ) . The fungous glycolipids are composed of a sugar units normally glucose and galatose, hydrophobic ceramides, C 19 sphingoid, C-9 metyl braches and unsaturated linkages with hydroxyhexadecanoic acids ( Pinto et al. (virginiaground.com)
  • species
  • Almost 200 gangliosides species have been described, showing differences in the number, the order, and the linkage of the glycosyl and sialyl residues [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is the most widely distributed ganglioside among tissues, and it serves as a precursor for most of the more complex ganglioside species. (pnas.org)
  • There are two subgroups of Siglecs: One group contains Siglecs that are conserved in all mammalian species and the other group contains CD33-related Siglecs that appear to be undergoing rapid evolution in primates. (asmscience.org)
  • sphingolipids
  • Herein, we briefly review how sphingolipids are implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis and related diseases, and then we discuss the potential therapy options by targetting several key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism. (clinsci.org)
  • sterols
  • Hamilton, 1995) are defined as 'all those substances that are structurally related to the sterols and bile acids to the extent of possessing the characteristic perhydro-1,2-cyclopentano-phenanthrene ring system. (karelsavry.us)
  • Mechanism
  • While torcetrapib produced dose-related increases in blood pressure in clinical trials, the mechanism of the increase in blood pressure is also undetermined. (academicconcepts.net)
  • membrane
  • Such trafficking, in turn, is related to the membrane organization of GSLs in terms of their ordered or disordered domain structure (9). (schoolbag.info)
  • Glycolipids are a structurally really heterogeneous group of membrane edge compound nowadays in all life procaryotic and eucaryotic organisams to human cells. (virginiaground.com)
  • Glycolipids are an indispensable component of cellular membrane and have the singular biological maps of cell collection or dissociation act as receptor of accepter to supply the contact. (virginiaground.com)
  • intracellular
  • The functional importance of the heterogeneity has not been defined but may relate to the receptor function of GSLs and their intracellular trafficking (8). (schoolbag.info)
  • mice
  • We have found that mice without the capacity to synthesize GM3 ganglioside had enhanced phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor after ligand binding. (pnas.org)
  • protein
  • Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP) are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. (jove.com)
  • tumors
  • Ganglioside GD3 is overexpressed in many types of tumors and may be associated with tumor progression and the development of metastatic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • strongly
  • Exogenous GT1b strongly induced the morphologic changes related to an accumulation of sparse flocculent precipitates in lysosomes and increased the extracellular hyaluronic acid level in orbital fibroblasts with the induction of hyaluronic acid synthase, which were less by GD1a but not by GM1. (arvojournals.org)
  • certain
  • the type II HLT include LT-IIa and LT-IIb, two antigenically related enterotoxins produced by certain enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli ( 14 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • role
  • The results suggest that gangliosides, particularly GT1b, may play a role in the pathologic mechanisms of TAO by stimulating an increase in hyaluronic acid. (arvojournals.org)
  • The results indicate that GM3 ganglioside has an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity. (pnas.org)
  • stable
  • Accordingly, it is desired to develop a bio-related substance formed by highly stable bonds, a process for producing the same, and a branched reactive polyalkylene glycol derivative which can be produced in a convenient manner and in a high purity and has a higher stability. (allindianpatents.com)
  • A first object of the invention is to provide a bio-related substance having a branched poly(alkylene glycol)oxy group which is formed by stable bonds and is hardly decomposed to a single chain, and a process for producing the same. (allindianpatents.com)
  • results
  • Our results show that GM3 ganglioside is a negative regulator of insulin signaling, making it a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • differences
  • In vitro binding assays have shown that the members of the type I and type II HLT exhibit differences in their relative binding affinities for various gangliosides. (asm.org)