Loading...
  • genes
  • Upon activation, ALK5 phosphorylates the cytoplasmic signaling protein EZH2 Smad-2 and -3, which in turn associate with Smad-4, translocate in buy NP118809 to the nucleus like a multiprotein complicated, and stimulate the transcription of TGF-responsive genes. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • CRABP2 is specifically co-expressed with RAR-β and cellular retinol binding protein 1 genes in certain tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following human genes encode MATE proteins: SLC47A1 SLC47A2 Solute carrier family Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Superfamily (RND) Brown MH, Paulsen IT, Skurray RA (January 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II FASs are dissociated systems, meaning the component enzymes are independent proteins encoded by a series of separate genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, also known as E2 enzymes and more rarely as ubiquitin-carrier enzymes, perform the second step in the ubiquitination reaction that targets a protein for degradation via the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). (wikipedia.org)
  • This conserved region is also found as a domain in various metabolic enzymes and in multidomain proteins, such as aldehyde oxidoreductase (N-terminal), xanthine oxidase (N-terminal), phthalate dioxygenase reductase (C-terminal), succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulphur protein (N-terminal), and methane monooxygenase reductase (N-terminal). (wikipedia.org)
  • transport proteins
  • While this study involved albumin, it showed that perfluoro compounds may also have potential to interact with thyroid serum transport proteins. (aopwiki.org)
  • Co-transport proteins of mammalian cell membranes had eluded efforts of purification with classical biochemical methods until the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that there must be specific transport proteins associated with the uptake of monoamines and acetylcholine into vesicles developed due to the discovery of specific inhibitors which interfered with monoamine neurotransmission and also depleted monoamines in neuroendocrine tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBPs
  • Although CSPs share no sequence similarity with OBPs, these two groups of carrier proteins are characterized structurally by a hydrophilic surface and a hydrophobic core, respectively, to make them soluble in the sensillar lymph and to enable them to bind and carry olfactory ligands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The three-dimensional structures of two odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and one chemosensory protein (CSP) from a polyphagous ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) were resolved bioinformatically. (ijbs.com)
  • residues
  • The protein exhibits a single N-terminal hydrophobic segment (a putative TMS), plus 6 additional putative TMSs in the C-terminal region (residues 420-650) of this 652 aas protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An N-terminal domain (residues 100-218 in the R. metallidurans protein) shows similarity to the C-terminal cytochrome C6 domain in the diheme c-type cytochrome, FixP of Azorhizobium caulinodans. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are proteins of around one hundred amino acids with four conserved cysteine residues to which the 2Fe-2S cluster is ligated. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The Fe2S2 ferredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp2FeFd) has been recognized as distinct protein family on the basis of its amino acid sequence, spectroscopic properties of its iron-sulfur cluster and the unique ligand swapping ability of two cysteine ligands to the [Fe2Scluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • It has been postulated that the CRABP2 gene is transcriptionally regulated by a newly synthesized regulatory protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SLC5A1 gene encodes a protein that is involved in the active transport of glucose and galactose into eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 L3 (UBE2L3), also called UBCH7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBE2L3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is encoded by the SLC26A5 (solute carrier anion transporter family 26, member 5) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • The iron/lead transporter (ILT) family (TC# 2.A.108) is a family of transmembrane proteins within the lysine exporter (LysE) superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • A representative list of the proteins belonging to these subfamilies of the ILT family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently a bacterial iron transporter has been characterized from a marine magnetotactic α-proteobacterium, but errors in the sequence precluded inclusion of this protein in TCDB. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • It is the only PTS family in which members possess a IID protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TGF- belongs to a family group of structurally related multifunctional polypeptides taking part in the rules of development, cells redesigning, differentiation, angiogenesis, swelling, immune rules, and fibrosis (14). (conferencedequebec.org)
  • A number of specific carrier proteins for members of the vitamin A family have been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-antimicrobial extrusion protein (MATE) also known as multidrug and toxin extrusion or multidrug and toxic compound extrusion is a family of proteins which function as drug/sodium or proton antiporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single protein, PbrT (TC# 2.A.108.2.1), encoded within the lead resistance locus of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34, serves as the prototype for the PbrT family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, PbrT is related to the OFeT family, both structurally and functionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitination
  • The ubiquitination process covalently attaches ubiquitin, a short protein of 76 amino acids, to a lysine residue on the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a protein has been tagged with one ubiquitin molecule, additional rounds of ubiquitination form a polyubiquitin chain that is recognized by the proteasome's 19S regulatory particle, triggering the ATP-dependent unfolding of the target protein that allows passage into the proteasome's 20S core particle, where proteases degrade the target into short peptide fragments for recycling by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred via a signal transduction pathway, to enzyme I (EI) which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier, the histidine protein (HPr). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme is stimulated by spermidine and in vitro activity is increased by the presence of carrier proteins (such as BSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipoic acid can be removed whenever proteins are degraded and by action of the enzyme lipoamidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free lipoate can be used by some organisms as an enzyme called lipoate protein ligase that attaches it covalently to the correct protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Despite the two binding sites for T4 on the TTR serum binding protein, each molecule of TTR only carries a single T4 molecule due to the negative cooperativity displayed by these binding sites (Ferguson et al 1975). (aopwiki.org)
  • The E3 molecule is responsible for binding the target protein substrate and transferring the ubiquitin from the E2 cysteine to a lysine residue on the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon atom at C6 is chiral and the molecule exists as two enantiomers (R)-(+)-lipoic acid (RLA) and (S)-(-)-lipoic acid (SLA) and as a racemic mixture (R/S)-lipoic acid (R/S-LA). LA appears physically as a yellow solid and structurally contains a terminal carboxylic acid and a terminal dithiolane ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • integral
  • VMAT1 is an integral membrane protein, which is embedded in synaptic vesicles and serves to transfer monoamines, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, between the cytosol and synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Micrococcin P1 is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that functions as an acceptor-site-specific inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, effectively preventing the growth of Gram-positive bacteria without affecting that of Gram-negative bacteria. (biomol.com)
  • bound
  • The selectivity of binding of low-molecular-weight constituents for different classes of carrier proteins was explored further (17,18), revealing that subsets of bound low-molecular-weight peptides and sequenced protein fragments associated with albumin were different from those bound to immunoglobulin, apolipoprotein, and transferrin (18). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6) This is a significant number on its own, but the situation may be even worse when accounting for the fact that the majority of the hormone is bound to carrier proteins including sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin and, as such, may not be available for tissues to use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • uptake
  • Mitochondria-derived peptide (MDP), Promotes biosynthesis of the endogenous AMP analog AICAR and consequently AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Induces cellular and systemic glucose uptake and improves insulin sensitivity. (biomol.com)
  • 8 TMSs in a 1 + 7 arrangement)/FetP (a periplasmic protein that enhances iron uptake by FetM) (TC# 2.A.108.2.10) has been characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • They contain discrete functional domains responsible for specific catalytic activities of the reaction sequence, either on a single polypeptide chain or on two different multifunctional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory protein
  • Specifically, UBE2L3 manages cell cycle regulatory protein levels via the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway (UPP) during the G1/S transition and during the actual S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferredoxin
  • The term "ferredoxin" was coined by D.C. Wharton of the DuPont Co. and applied to the "iron protein" first purified in 1962 by Mortenson, Valentine, and Carnahan from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the physiological role of this ferredoxin remains unclear, a strong and specific interaction of Cp2FeFd with the molybdenum-iron protein of nitrogenase has been revealed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, putidaredoxin and terpredoxin serve as electron carriers between corresponding NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductases and soluble P450s. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Two hydrogens of octanoate are replaced with sulfur groups via a radical SAM mechanism, by lipoyl synthase As a result, lipoic acid is synthesized attached to proteins and no free lipoic acid is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of these possibilities, it is not known if a channel or carrier mechanism operates. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • These are distinguished by using either Ba2+ or Ca2+ as the charge carrier in the external recording solution (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • transfers
  • In this system, the H protein is a free lipoyl domain with additional helices, the L protein is a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, the P protein is the decarboxylase, and the T protein transfers the methylamine from lipoate to tetrahydrofolate (THF) yielding methylene-THF and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • 2. A membrane protein for facilitated diffusion of a specific substance into a cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In regards to future plans for the HGP-30 AIDS vaccine, Sarin said: "We plan to optimize conditions for linking HGP-30 to carrier proteins and to evaluate various adjuvants, so as to be able to obtain T-cell proliferative and CTL responses in all the immunized volunteers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Simultaneous expression of Fet3p and Ftr1p in yeast is required for proper localization of either protein at the cell surface, suggesting that a complex of the two proteins is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • The candidate thermosensor heat shock RNA-1 (HSR1) activates heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and induces protective proteins when cell temperature exceeds 37 °C (body temperature), thus preventing the cells from overheating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of gas vesicles are regulated by two Gvp proteins: GvpD, which represses the expression of GvpA and GvpC proteins, and GvpE, which induces expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • As such, many lipid signaling molecules cannot circulate freely in solution but, rather, exist bound to special carrier proteins in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthesis gene, entD: nucleotide sequence and membrane localization of its protein product. (stepdb.eu)
  • p16 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike replication, where a complete copy of DNA is made, transcription copies only the gene that is to be expressed as a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible polymorphism of the CELA1 gene coding this protein was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structural transition can then expose or occlude important regions of RNA such as a ribosome binding site, which then affects the translation rate of a nearby protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA thermometers are found in the 5' UTR of messenger RNA, upstream of a protein-coding gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The start codon, typically found 8 nucleotides downstream of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, signals the beginning of a protein-coding gene which is then translated to a peptide product by the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic[disambiguation needed] responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The exons of these 25,000 genes can be spliced in many different ways to create countless combinations of RNA transcripts and ultimately countless proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Hormonal signaling involves the following steps: Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue Storage and secretion of the hormone Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s) Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions form connections between intracellular synaptic vesicles and fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatases
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The types of cellular proteins that serve as substrates for PKA include strategy options in marketing enzymes, Hartford Hospital Hartford, CT Melissa Burns Holyoke, MA minimally invasive procedures were performed in 1996. (binaryoptix.com)
  • In addition to direct interactions, DHEA is thought to regulate a handful of other proteins via indirect, genomic mechanisms, including the enzymes CYP2C11 and 11β-HSD1 - the latter of which is essential for the biosynthesis of the glucocorticoids such as cortisol and has been suggested to be involved in the antiglucocorticoid effects of DHEA - and the carrier protein IGFBP1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, also known as E2 enzymes and more rarely as ubiquitin-carrier enzymes, perform the second step in the ubiquitination reaction that targets a protein for degradation via the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Until 1953 such analysis, however, had proved fruitful only when used to determine the atomic arrangement of simple organic compounds at least a hundred times smaller than protein molecules, which contain hundreds of amino acid residues arranged in definite sequences as polypeptide chains. (thecrimson.com)
  • The tRNA-amino acid precursors are brought into position by ribosomes where they can read the information provided mRNA templates to synthesize protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Through a series of experiments involving E. coli and the T4 phage in 1960, it was shown that messenger RNA (mRNA) carriers information from DNA to the ribosomal sites of protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this research, mutations upstream from the transcription start site in a lambda (λ) phage cIII mRNA were found to affect the level of translation of the cIII protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • the smallest is just 44 nucleotides and is found in the mRNA of a heat-shock protein, hsp17, in Synechocystis species PCC 6803. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here they are able to occlude the ribosome binding site (RBS) and prevent translation of the mRNA into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four (p4), or six (p6) identical protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • PRC1 and PRC2 are two protein complexes that modify the expression of p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription of p16. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Direct interactions of early and late assembling division proteins in Escherichia coli cells resolved by FRET. (stepdb.eu)
  • 1988"). For a brief summary on the history of S-layer research see references In Gram-negative bacteria, S-layers are associated to the lipopolysaccharides via ionic, carbohydrate-carbohydrate, protein-carbohydrate interactions and/or protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of SLH domains, the binding occurs via electrostatic interactions between the positively charged N-terminus of the S-layer protein and a negatively charged secondary cell wall polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins involved in epigenetic modification through methylation and repression of the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creating a protein consists of two main steps: transcription of DNA into RNA and translation of RNA into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In his book Proteins and Nucleic Acids, Perutz compares protein molecules to animals, in the sense that both have a "three-dimensional anatomy laid out to a definite plan, rigid in some parts and flexible in others, with perhaps some minor variations in different individuals of the same species. (thecrimson.com)
  • Crick then proposed that prior to incorporation into proteins, amino acids are first attached to adapter molecules which have unique surface features that can bind to specific bases on the RNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Initially, it was thought that RNA served as a structural template for protein synthesis, essentially ordering amino acids by a series of cavities shaped specifically so that only specific amino acids would fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly of a highly ordered coherent monomolecular S-layer array on a growing cell surface requires a continuous synthesis of a surplus of S-layer proteins and their translocation to sites of lattice growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • represents
  • Perutz' picture of the "architecture" of hemoglobin, the protein of red blood cells, represents almost 25 years of intensive research and was made possible by his discovery of a new experimental method of X-ray analysis. (thecrimson.com)
  • diameter
  • Organisms have evolved to be the most efficient with protein use and use the largest maximum vesicle diameter that will withstand the pressure the organism could be exposed to. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mature virion has cubic symmetry, two or three capsid proteins, a diameter of approximately 20 nm, 32 capsomeres, no envelope or essential lipids, and a weight of 5.3 × 106 daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancers and tobacco smoking exacerbates carriers' susceptibility for such non-melanoma cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-expression of either of these proteins causes an increase in synapse forming sites, thus providing evidence that neurexin plays a functional role in synaptogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the S-layer protein can represent up to 15% of the whole protein content of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Design, purification and characterization of a soluble variant of the integral membrane protein MotB for structural studies. (stepdb.eu)
  • signals
  • As demonstrated by a re-evaluation of human neutrophil glycosylation, high mass signals beyond m/z 6500 were observed and structurally informative MS/MS data were generated from signals in the region of m/z 4000 [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • known
  • Most known RNA thermometers are located in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNA encoding heat shock proteins-though it has been suggested this fact may be due, in part, to sampling bias and inherent difficulties of detecting short, unconserved RNA sequences in genomic data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • This theory proposes that RNA was once the sole nucleic acid present in cells, and was replaced by the current DNA → RNA → protein system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurexins alone are capable of recruiting neuroligins in postsynaptic cells to a dendritic surface, resulting in clustered neurotransmitter receptors and other postsynaptic proteins and machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • alternate
  • this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serratia sp, flagella-based motility and gas vesicle production are regulated oppositely by a single RNA binding protein, RsmA, suggesting alternate modes of environmental adaptation which would have developed into different taxons through regulation of the development between motility and flotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • Double-labelling for dystrophin and neurofilament protein showed that these dystrophin-deficient sites were subjacent to the annulospiral sensory-nerve wrappings terminating on the intrafusal fibers. (ubc.ca)
  • addition
  • Elastases form a subfamily of serine proteases, characterized by a distinctive structure consisting of two beta barrel domains converging at the active site that hydrolyze amides and esters amongst many proteins in addition to elastin, a type of connective tissue that holds organs together. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • This protein is involved in selection of either a lytic or lysogenic life cycle in λ phage, with high concentrations of cIII promoting lysogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synapse formation can therefore be triggered in either direction by these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • This forms a forward feeding cycle, where small clusters of β-neurexins recruit more β-neurexins and scaffolding proteins to form a large synaptic adhesive contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • The naphthoic acid moiety of the enediyne neocarzinostatin plays key roles in the biological activity of the natural product by interacting with both the carrier protein and duplex DNA at the site of action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • structure
  • The determination of the molecular structure of the two oxygen-carriers ranks as one of the most spectacular achievements of molecular biology. (thecrimson.com)
  • Perutz' X-ray studies of hemoglobin have not yet reached the same high degree of resolution and show far less detail than Kendrew's X-ray analysis of myoglobin, which Perutz says "opened a rich mine of stereochemical information about protein structure. (thecrimson.com)
  • domain
  • Discovery and characterization of three new Escherichia coli septal ring proteins that contain a SPOR domain: DamX, DedD, and RlpA. (stepdb.eu)
  • possible
  • Both structurally and functionally, it is possible to distinguish a back or dorsal side from a belly or ventral side in Trichoplax adhaerens. (wikipedia.org)