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  • gene
  • Among these, causative genes for inherited diseases of the retina have been identified by positional cloning or candidate gene approaches. (jneurosci.org)
  • We report here the structural properties and the expression patterns of this gene in the retina, plus we discuss its potential function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although DNA cloning is one of the most basic tools used in biology to understand genes and gene function(s), cloning is not considered representative of HGT because the process occurs under well regulated laboratory conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Abstract In the aortic wall of mammalian species, the maturation phase of smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage is characterized by two temporally correlated but opposite regulatory processes of gene expression: upregulation of SM type SM2 myosin isoform and downregulation of brain (myosin heavy chain B)- and platelet (myosin heavy chain A pla )-type nonmuscle myosins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the M r 110,000 molecule represents a potentially novel cell membrane glycoprotein whose possible role in human cancer and/or as a γ-interferon-inducible gene product warrants further investigation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, a set a new human cell lines derived from different tissues were developed using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene under the control of type I IFN-inducible Mx2 promoter. (springer.com)
  • In addition, having reporter gene assays derived from cells of different tissue origins would allow us to design studies aiming to evaluate how IFNs induce their actions through the human body. (springer.com)
  • Three human tissue-derived cell lines: A549 (lung cancer cells), HEp-2 (epidermoid larynx carcinoma cells) and HeLa (cervical adenocarcinoma cells) were used to develop new reporter gene assays based on the expression of the eGFP gene under the control of type I IFN-inducible Mx2 promoter. (springer.com)
  • Linear dose-response relationships from reporter gene assays employing different human cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the gene may be expressed in various isoforms in different cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The cDNA was cloned in the course of investigating transcription factors that bind to Sp1 consensus sequences, using the in situ filter detection method, and it was found to encode a protein having the same C 2 -H 2 zinc finger motif as Sp1. (jneurosci.org)
  • My lab uses cryo electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) to investigate the structure and function of challenging protein targets that are intractable with other structural biology techniques. (gene.com)
  • Like C9, this protein creates transmembrane tubules and is capable of lysing non-specifically a variety of target cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • The HPPR protein was purified from suspension cells of Coleus blumei accumulating high levels of rosmarinic acid by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography, chromatography on 2′,5′-ADP-Sepharose 4B and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (deepdyve.com)
  • protein: NTPDase1) also known as CD39 (Cluster of Differentiation 39), is a typical cell surface-located enzymes with an extracellularly facing catalytic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • They account for 1-2% of total protein in unstressed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • We now show that the antibodies produced by these B-cells react strongly with the core carbohydrate region of LPS. (pnas.org)
  • We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • A strict definition of autoimmunity would exclude such diseases, because T cells or antibodies specific for self-antigens are not responsible for tissue damage. (jci.org)
  • Antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or monoclonal antibody termed Ki-67 can be used for grading of different neoplasms, e.g. astrocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, an important limitation of antibodies is that cells need to be fixed leading to potential artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-prese
  • The inflammatory setting that results from a viral or bacterial infection leads to local activation of antigen-presenting cells and can result in enhanced processing and presentation of self-antigens present at that site. (jci.org)
  • autoreactive T cells
  • In experimental models of autoimmunity, disease can be transferred by activated, but not resting, autoreactive T cells ( 1 ), indicating that activation of autoreactive T cells is required for the development of autoimmune diseases. (jci.org)
  • Infectious agents have long been considered as possible culprits in the activation of autoreactive T cells. (jci.org)
  • For instance, molecular mimicry could trigger the initial activation of autoreactive T cells and/or induce expansion of a memory T cell population, while superantigens could reactivate autoreactive T cells and induce relapses. (jci.org)
  • The initial expansion of naive autoreactive T cells requires activation of the TCR by MHC-bound peptides or CD1-bound lipids/glycolipids. (jci.org)
  • Autoreactive T cells are found at approximately the same frequency in normal individuals and patients with MS ( 5 - 8 ), although in subjects with the disease, autoreactive T cells are in a more activated state as compared with T cells from normal individuals ( 9 - 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • these autoreactive T cells can persist over long periods of time in patients ( 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • genes
  • The high structural stability of the cloned Synechocystis genome was closely associated with the symmetry of the bacterial genome structure of the DNA replication origin ( oriC ) and its termination ( terC ) and the exclusivity of Synechocystis ribosomal RNA operon genes ( rrnA and rrnB ). (pnas.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Chromogranin A induces and promotes the generation of secretory granules such as those containing insulin in pancreatic islet beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cell
  • PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • An hepatocyte cell-adhesion molecule (cell-CAM105) was recently shown to be identical with the liver plasma-membrane ecto-ATPase. (biochemj.org)
  • peptides
  • Microbial peptides can activate self-reactive T cells, but the structural basis for such crossreactivity is not well understood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • MOG 97-109 -reactive CD4 + T cells, isolated with DRB1*0401/MOG 97-109 tetramers, and after a short-term culture of PMBCs with MOG 97-109 peptides, were detected more frequently from patients with MS as compared with healthy controls. (jimmunol.org)
  • These peptides negatively modulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine). (wikipedia.org)
  • stability
  • 5 These data clearly indicate that myosin is a reliable marker to study the phenotypic SMC transitions and the factors that can affect the differentiative stability of these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • sequences
  • The target DNA is guided in the BGM vector by simultaneous homologous recombination at two small flanking DNAs called landing pad sequences (LPS), integrated at the BGM cloning locus before cloning. (pnas.org)
  • differentiation
  • Among the various SMC differentiation markers, myosin appears to be a powerful tool to study the structural modifications that these cells undergo during development, in vitro, and in vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation and plays an important role in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigation
  • In the present investigation, we cloned and characterized a murine Sp1-related zinc finger transcription factor cDNA, which is expressed in the adult and developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by infiltration of pathogenic immune cells in the CNS resulting in destruction of the myelin sheath and surrounding axons. (jimmunol.org)
  • malignant
  • In immunohistochemistry it can be used to identify a range of neuroendocrine tumours and is highly specific for both benign and malignant cells of this type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
  • type 1 diabet
  • A peptide fragment of ChgA located in the Vasostatin-1, namely ChgA29-42 has been identified as the antigenic epitope recognized by diabetogenic BDC2.5 T cells from type 1 diabetes prone NOD mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • Cell cultures of Hypericum calycinum respond to elicitor treatment with the accumulation of the prenylated xanthone hyperxanthone E. A cDNA encoding a membrane-bound PT (HcPT) was isolated from a subtracted cDNA library and transcript preparations of H. calycinum . (mdpi.com)
  • An increase in the HcPT transcript level preceded hyperxanthone E accumulation in cell cultures of H. calycinum treated with elicitor. (mdpi.com)
  • infiltration
  • One feature of chronic rejection is the infiltration of ectopic B-cell clusters that are clonal into the transplanted kidney. (pnas.org)
  • Proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis, adipogenesis etc and in several other developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although several parts were very similar between human desmuslin and chicken synemin, the low degree of conservation between these two proteins compared to other cloned IF proteins suggested that synemin was not the human desmuslin orthologue. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 2001, Titeux and colleagues reported the cloning of the α and β splice-varying isoforms of human synemin and showed that β-synemin was identical to desmuslin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem-cells
  • In the field of genetic engineering, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) may be spliced together from different organisms, in an attempt to transfer hereditary traits that may increase crop yields, create a supply of stem-cells, or even clone sheep. (kilgorecollege.net)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • This experimental approach was also used to investigate other lymphocyte populations, including "natural killer" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • chromatin
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Even so, the cholesterol-24 hydroxylase C-terminus has a unique proline-rich region of 5 repeated proline residues, a structural motif absent in all other related cytochrome p450 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, type II interferons are released by T helper cells, type 1 specifically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of follicular T helper cells by CD8+ Treg is essential for self tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • CFL1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_005498), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15NL-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15NL-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • thyroid
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Analysis
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental production of mice deprived of selected T-cell subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • There are sixteen variants of histone H2B found in humans, thirteen of which are expressed in regular body cells and three of which are only expressed in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)