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  • Instability
  • For cases 1 and 2, the sup-Wald (i.e., the supremum of a set of Wald statistics), sup-LM (i.e., the supremum of a set of Lagrange multiplier statistics), and sup-LR (i.e., the supremum of a set of likelihood ratio statistics) tests developed by Andrews (1993, 2003) may be used to test for parameter instability when the number and location of structural breaks are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • folds
  • Actors at structural folds are multiple insiders, benefiting from dense cohesive ties that provide familiarity with the operations of the members in their group. (wikipedia.org)
  • As actors at structural folds can be considered multiple insiders, who benefit from both dense cohesive ties that provide familiarity with the operations of the members in their group and from access to non-redundant information, they are believed to be in a better position for innovation and creative success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, actors at structural folds occupy a privileged position for successful innovation and creativity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On an empirical level, it was found that in the case of Hungarian businesses, groups with more structural folds are more likely to break up, and when they do so they are likely to fragment into smaller groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitively diverse groups held in tension by structural folds have both a greater repertoire of action and the ability to recontextualize knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Only those who practice structural analysis are aware of what they are actually trying to do: that is, to reunite perspectives that the "narrow" scientific outlook of recent centuries believed to be mutually exclusive: sensibility and intellect, quality and quantity, the concrete and the geometrical, or as we say today, the "etic" and the "emic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree, followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of that association is to exchange knowledge and to advance the practice of structural engineering worldwide in the service of the profession and society. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • For a cointegration model, the Gregory-Hansen test (1996) can be used for one unknown structural break, and the Hatemi-J test (2006) can be used for two unknown breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • beam
  • Many structural steel shapes take the form of an elongated beam having a profile of a specific cross section. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of Euronorms define the shape of a set of standard structural profiles: European I-beam: IPE - Euronorm 19-57 European I-beam: IPN - DIN 1025-1 European flange beams: HE - Euronorm 53-62 European channels: UPN - DIN 1026-1 European cold formed IS IS 800-1 Steels used for building construction in the US use standard alloys identified and specified by ASTM International. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Vedres and Stark (2010) in their study indeed found that structural folding contributed to higher performance of business groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional aspect of the Structural Communication study unit is the assessment of the learner's responses to the questions posed by the study unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of structural holes spans the fields of sociology, economics, and computer science. (wikipedia.org)
  • In drug discovery either a large series of structural analogs of an initial lead compound are created and tested as part of a structure-activity relationship study or a database is screened for structural analogs of a lead compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another name for structural endogamy is (marital) relinking, which comes out of French social anthropology, and the study of how communities are formed through couples marrying who are already linked: linked, that is, by chains of kinship and marriage, as in circles of intermarrying families, or marriages between people with one or more ancestors in common (i.e., blood relatives, such as cousins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Logical positivism asserts that structural semantics is the study of relationships between the meanings of terms within a sentence, and how meaning can be composed from smaller elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Structural priming is a form of positive priming, in that it induces a tendency to repeat or more easily process a current sentence that is similar in structure to a previously presented prime. (wikipedia.org)
  • One specific form of structural priming is syntactic priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subject is then significantly more likely to describe the a picture as X gave Y the Z instead of X gave the Z to Y. This persistence in sentential form is structural priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Testing has shown that structural soil is safe around utilities and that you can use trees from any production system such as balled-and-bur lapped, bare root, containerized and boxed trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • More experienced engineers may be responsible for the structural design and integrity of an entire system, such as a building. (wikipedia.org)
  • network
  • Applied to network analytical terms, structural folding may in fact destabilise groups as overlapping membership can disrupt group coordination and reciprocal trust. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is marketed as CU-Structural Soil for quality control and is produced by a network of qualified AMEREQ-licensed companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the hole between two contacts, they provide network benefits to the third party (to node A). Bridge count is simple and intuitive measure of structural holes in a network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural endogamy is a network concept that provides a means of finding the boundaries of endogamy in a community, using simply the genealogical and marriage linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly
  • These tests were shown to be superior to the CUSUM test in terms of statistical power, and are the most commonly used tests for the detection of structural change involving an unknown number of breaks in mean with unknown break points. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal yield strength grades available are 195, 235, 275, 355, 420, and 460, although some grades are more commonly used than others e.g. in the UK, almost all structural steel is grades S275 and S355. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Structural analogs are often isoelectronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural engineers who specialize in buildings often specialize in particular construction materials such as concrete, steel, wood, masonry, alloys and composites, and may focus on particular types of buildings such as offices, schools, hospitals, residential, and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Unaccusative: The parcel arrived Passive Transitive: The parcel was sent by the post Because the two constructions have this property in common, it has been suggested that such a thematic relational mapping is what allows structural priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • a common goal is to understand the structural evolution of a particular area with respect to regionally widespread patterns of rock deformation (e.g., mountain building, rifting) due to plate tectonics. (wikipedia.org)
  • case
  • It has also been argued that structural folding also contributes to creative success in the case of cultural products especially, when the overlapping groups are cognitively distant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • Cornell also suggests a minimum of 24" to 36" for CU-Structural Soil depth and they have established no minimum for length and width of installation, however, because it is a structural soil it was designed to go under the entire pavement area. (wikipedia.org)
  • However any two or more of the basic structural types described in the following may be combined in a single structure, such as a building or a bridge in order to meet the structure's functional requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Structural communication was developed in the 1960s by John G. Bennett and his research team to simulate the structure and quality of a small group tutorial through automated means. (wikipedia.org)
  • steel
  • Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most structural steel shapes, such as I-beams, have high second moments of area, which means they are very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area and thus can support a high load without excessive sagging. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Structural engineering dates back to 2700 B.C.E. when the step pyramid for Pharaoh Djoser was built by Imhotep, the first engineer in history known by name. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • EN10219-1 specifies the technical delivery conditions for cold formed welded structural hollow sections of circular, square or rectangular forms and applies to structural hollow sections formed cold without subsequent heat treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • provides
  • Structural Communication is an instructional approach that provides a simulated dialogue between an author of instructional materials and the students. (wikipedia.org)
  • understand
  • Environmental geologists and hydrogeologists need to apply the tenets of structural geology to understand how geologic sites impact (or are impacted by) groundwater flow and penetration. (wikipedia.org)
  • ways
  • In structural communication, information is provided that participants have to organize in explicit ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many ways, a well-organized democratic government that can effectively combine moderate growth with redistributive policies stands the best chance of combating structural inequality. (wikipedia.org)
  • basic
  • Structural functionalism also took on Malinowski's argument that the basic building block of society is the nuclear family, and that the clan is an outgrowth, not vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • holds
  • In 1999, AMEREQ signed a licensing agreement with Cornell University and currently holds the patent rights to Cornell's CU-Structural Soil Urban Tree Planting Mix. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, STALITE has developed STALITE MATRIX Structural Soil that they claim holds more moisture. (wikipedia.org)