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  • lipids
  • At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. (ovid.com)
  • Adding the measures individually or in combination to a cardiovascular risk prediction model containing blood pressure, diabetes history, and lipids did not have any appreciable effect on risk discrimination or reclassification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk, the researchers reported online in The Lancet . (medpagetoday.com)
  • iliac
  • Body weight was measured to within 1 kg, body length to within 1 cm, hip circumference at the iliac crests to within 1 cm, and waist circumference at the umbilicus to within 1 cm. (bmj.com)
  • Abdominal aorto-iliac atherosclerosis occurs earlier in the course of disease than coronary artery atherosclerosis and is often present in persons free of coronary atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We examined the associations of major risk factors with the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aorto-iliac calcium (AoIC) in the absence of CAC in 1994 black and white men and women participating in the CARDIA study at the year 25 exam in 2010-11. (ahajournals.org)
  • According to the World Health Organisation's data gathering protocol, the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest, using a stretch‐resistant tape that provides a constant 100 g tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States National Institutes of Health and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • We aimed to examine three types of financial hardship in relation to measured general and central obesity in a general population of older adults, while considering conventional socioeconomic indicators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over one-half of U.S. adults had abdominal obesity in the period of 2003-2004. (acpm.org)
  • Beydoun MA, Wang Y. Gender-ethnic disparity in BMI and waist circumference distribution shifts in US adults. (springermedizin.de)
  • 2 However, more recent studies (also in adults) have strongly suggested a role for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in the alteration of body fat distribution. (lww.com)
  • women
  • Our findings suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of RCC irrespective of fat distribution among women, whereas low hip circumference is related to increased RCC risk among men. (openrepository.com)
  • Abdominal obesity, in which the waist circumference measures more than 35 inches for women and more than 40 inches for men. (nyhq.org)
  • A waist circumference over 40 inches in men and over 35 inches in women, will increase the risk for high blood pressure (among other factors). (weight-loss-professional.com)
  • abdominal obesity, in which the waist circumference measures more than 35 inches for women and more than 40 inches for men - an increased waist circumference is the form of obesity most strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. (nyhq.org)
  • Anything above 40 inches (102 cm) in men and 35 inches (88 cm) in women is known as abdominal obesity. (healthline.com)
  • Women who carry excess fat around their waists were at greater risk of dying early from cancer or heart disease than were women with smaller waistlines, even if they were of normal weight, reported researchers from Harvard and the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers discovered that women with greater waist circumferences were more likely to die prematurely, particularly from heart disease, when compared to women with smaller waists. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, women with a waist size equal to or greater than 35 inches also were twice as likely to die of cancer as were women with a waist size less than 28 inches. (nih.gov)
  • Women who had a greater waist circumference and were also obese were at the greatest risk of premature death. (nih.gov)
  • Design/Outcome Measures: Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. (wellnessresources.com)
  • This agrees with our observation that BMI is rather inappropriate for predicting colon cancer in women because the relation between BMI and waist circumference is not as close as in men. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • This is probably because men gain weight primarily by increasing abdominal body fat, whereas in women, body fat normally also accumulates in other parts of the body", says Heiner Boeing, head of EPIC Potsdam. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Methods and Results Two hundred men and women representative of the Northern Sweden EPIC cohort were recruited for Paper I . A questionnaire on physical activity (PAQ) was validated against objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). (diva-portal.org)
  • In Paper III , the validity of a wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer was assessed in 32 pregnant and 74 non-pregnant women using double-labeled water method (DLW) as the criterion measure. (diva-portal.org)
  • A further aim was to clarify how strongly smoking and recurrent dieting are associated among Finnish men and women at different ages. (helsinki.fi)
  • The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) states that women with waist-hip ratios of more than 0.8, and men with more than 1.0, are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, we observed some evidence that adiponectin mediates the association between measures of abdominal obesity and adenomatous colon polyps in Caucasian women. (buffalo.edu)
  • risk
  • waist circumference measures abdominal (central) body fat and is strongly correlated with increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and other obesity-related illnesses and death. (cmaj.ca)
  • The current study is the largest, most comprehensive of its kind undertaken to show that accumulation of abdominal fat can increase the risk of death. (nih.gov)
  • However, the relationship between abdominal obesity and risk of death has not been widely studied. (nih.gov)
  • The current study is one of the largest extended investigations of abdominal obesity and women's risk of premature death. (nih.gov)
  • Many different tools have been developed to attempt to measure where a woman carries her body fat and predict her risk of health problems caused by extra fat. (hearthealthywomen.org)
  • Second, to compare the ability of each of the measures to predict five-year risk of diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Harrell's concordance statistic was used to test the predictive accuracy of each measure for diabetes risk at five years. (diva-portal.org)
  • A one standard deviation increment in each of the measures was associated with 64- 80% higher diabetes risk. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, there is no relation between the body measures of the investigation and rectal cancer risk. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Why increased abdominal fat raises the risk of colon cancer is currently unknown. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Height was also rather strongly associated with cancer risk in both sexes. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. (ovid.com)
  • Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness substantially reduce the risk of adult MetS, even among those with abdominal obesity in childhood. (ovid.com)
  • Our approach more clearly identifies specific risk groups than do analyses that evaluate similar measures separately. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations of risk factors measured at year 15 with the presence of CAC and AoIC (Agatston scores ≥1) at year 25. (ahajournals.org)
  • The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health, and the risk of developing serious health conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Unlike the fat that lies just beneath the abdominal wall, forming skin folds or "love handles," internal fat located in and around the abdominal organs may actually be more damaging, predisposing children to adult diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. (ovid.com)
  • high waist
  • Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. (ovid.com)
  • Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. (ovid.com)
  • weight
  • however, waist and hip circumference were no longer significant after controlling for body weight. (openrepository.com)
  • This study aimed to assess changes in upper airway size and regional facial and abdominal fat with weight loss and their association with OSA improvement. (bmj.com)
  • Although the BMI is the most widely used tool to measure the health effects of weight, it does have limitations. (hearthealthywomen.org)
  • In order to check the body fat percentage, it is necessary to enter info such as gender, weight in pounds, and circumference of waist, wrist, hip, and forearm. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • A new noninvasive device to measure visceral fat accumulation was introduced, and efficacy on weight-loss and improvement of healthy behaviors were examined. (hindawi.com)
  • Reductions of body weight, waist circumference, and BMI were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences between groups were significant by ANOVA. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a Web-based weight-loss program, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of information on visceral fat accumulation (VFA) on waist circumference (WC), body weight (BW), BMI, and healthy workplace behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Dieting for rapid weight loss usually leads to weight regain with possible extra pounds and detrimental effects in fat distribution or other health measures. (helsinki.fi)
  • Based on validated self-reported height and weight at age 18, baseline, and 10-year follow up and waist circumference at 2-year and 10-year follow up, we identified 16 a priori body-size phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like the weight-for-height tables, BMI has its limitations because it does not measure body fat or muscle directly. (athealth.com)
  • The body fat percentage is considered to be an even more accurate measure of relative weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors) were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. (springer.com)
  • serum
  • We genotyped 23 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3 and IGFALS, and measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in samples of cases and controls. (openrepository.com)
  • participants
  • While all participants had similar fat distribution patterns with a predominance of fat in the tissue of the abdominal wall, the total amount of fat tissue varied. (eurekalert.org)
  • Differences
  • Per aim 2, race and sex differences were observed in the nature and magnitude of associations between the three proxy measures of obesity (BMI, WC, and WHR) and adipokine concentrations. (buffalo.edu)