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  • neuronal damage
  • Neuronal damage after stroke is aggravated by accumulation of neurotoxic excitatory amino acids. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Our results suggest that GFAP upregulation in ischemic injury may have different functional significance in female and male experimental animals and may not directly reflect the extent of ischemia-induced neuronal damage in female GFAP-luc mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 In cerebral ischemia, GFAP has been widely used as an alternative marker of neuronal damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regenerative therapeutics, that encompass embryonic, neural, and adult stem cell therapies, possess great potential to reverse neuronal damage associated with CNS diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • risk factor for cerebral
  • 14 Because an investigation including older patients was still lacking, we designed a case-control study to determine whether previous infection is an independent risk factor for cerebral ischemia in adult patients aged 80 years or younger living in a small area in southwest Germany. (ahajournals.org)
  • arterial
  • The correlation between admission blood glucose and intravenous rt-PA-induced arterial recanalization in acute ischemic stroke: a multi-centre TCD study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We performed a prospective observational study to test whether purine levels in arterial blood might correlate with brain ischaemia. (springer.com)
  • We made real-time perioperative measurements, via microelectrode biosensors, of the purine levels in untreated arterial blood from 18 patients undergoing regional anaesthetic carotid endarterectomy. (springer.com)
  • To address this issue, we have used a novel biosensor technology to examine the purine levels in sequential arterial blood samples taken before, during and after the mild and reversible brain ischaemia that is imposed during the cross-clamp phase of awake carotid endarterectomy. (springer.com)
  • The study showed that endarterectomy safely and efficaciously reduced the risk of stroke in symptomatic patients with higher-grade carotid arterial stenosis when compared with medical therapy ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • junctions
  • Occasionally more subtle evidence can be found for large strokes, such as hyperdense middle cerebral artery (MCA) sign, insular ribbon sign or subtle asymmetry in the gray-white junctions. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • global cerebral
  • Previously, we have shown that connexin 43 hemichannel blockade, with a specific mimetic peptide, reduced the occurrence of seizures, improved recovery of EEG power and sleep state cycling, and improved cell survival following global cerebral ischaemia. (mdpi.com)
  • E. Candelario-Jalil, A. González-Falcón, M. García-Cabrera, D. Alvarez, S.M. Al-Dalain, G. Martínez, O.S. León, J.E. Springer, Assessment of the relative contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms to ischemia-induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration following transient global cerebral ischemia, J. Neurochem. (cogprints.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Almost all younger patients and many of the older patients living in this area are referred to our emergency unit for primary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • This chapter focuses on the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms underlying MSC treatment of stroke, such as angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, neurogenesis and white matter remodeling, as well as a discussion on the interaction/coupling among these restorative events. (springer.com)
  • Further, administration of nimesulide in a delayed treatment paradigm completely abolished PGE2 accumulation in the postischemic brain, suggesting that COX-2 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia to target the late-occurring inflammatory events which amplify initial damage. (cogprints.org)
  • Progesterone in experimental permanent stroke: a dose-response and therapeutic time-window study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging therapeutics for treating stroke, acute injuries, and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain tumors due to their regenerative capacity and ability to secrete trophic, immune modulatory, or other engineered therapeutic factors. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest for the first time that, in addition to its protection on neural cells, EPO protects ECs and promotes the neurovascular unit repair, which may contribute to its therapeutic benefits after neonatal ischemic stroke. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anti-inflammatory agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) may prove to be potential therapeutic agents in AD and cerebral ischemia and may be particularly effective in inhibiting the enhanced neuroinflammation and dementia when both AD and cerebral ischemia are present. (ahajournals.org)
  • hypoxia
  • Hypoxia-ischaemia around the time of birth is associated with approximately 1-3/1000 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy and a high risk of death or disability [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Hypoxia-ischaemia is characterized by progressive evolution of damage over days following the insult [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • pathophysiology
  • 1976). For the understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemia, two different types of cerebral dysfunction have to be distinguished: disturbances which occur during ischemia and disturbances which develop during recirculation after ischemia (Hossmann, 1977). (springer.com)
  • Background and Purpose- In vivo changes in tissue pH and energy metabolism are key to understanding stroke pathophysiology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stenosis
  • The carotid stenosis was one of the higher risk of the ischemia stroke in China.In the mean time ,more and more people accept revascularization because of carotid stenosis.NASCAT indicated that CEA is the 'golden standard' of the therapy of the carotid stenosis.But in china , case the opposite,only little patient receive CEA,on the other hand , most patients received angioplasty. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • outcome
  • Heterogeneity affecting outcome from acute stroke therapy: making reperfusion worse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 70 cm 3 predicts poor outcome in patients with stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • 70 cm 3 , we sought to determine what effect recanalization and time to recanalization had on infarct growth and functional outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • 70 cm 3 at the time of intervention, we sought to evaluate whether recanalization status and time to recanalization predicted infarct growth and long-term functional outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • The highest risk for re-bleeding and worsening of outcome is within the first 24-48 hours, making differentiation between these two forms of stroke the top priority for initial evaluation. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The international stroke study showed that acute treatment of stroke patients with 500mg of aspirin is safe and feasible and results in better outcome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The global odds ratio for improvement included improvements in the Barthel Index (OR 1.6, 95 percent CI 1.1 to 2.5), modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (OR 1.7, 95 percent CI 1.1 to 2.5), Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (OR 1.6, 95 percent CI 1.1 to 2.5) and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR 1.7, 95 percent CI 1.0 to 2.8). (ahrq.gov)
  • cardiovascular
  • The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate whether treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin or rivaroxaban alone is better than aspirin alone in prevention of heart attacks, stroke or cardiovascular death in patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The participants who suffer from stroke(ischemic or hemorrhagic), death or cardiovascular events within 30 days after any revascularization procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Stroke in patients with TIA mainly heart attacks and other cardiovascular events during follow-up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Inflammatory
  • F.C. Barone, G.Z. Feuerstein, Inflammatory mediators and stroke: new opportunities for novel therapeutics, J. Cereb. (cogprints.org)
  • Approximately one fifth of patients with acute stroke are hyperglycemic and/or have had a recent infectious or inflammatory condition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inflammatory responses common in both AD and cerebral ischemia include astrocytosis, microgliosis, 3 and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Previously, rat models of cerebral ischemia or β-amyloid (Aβ) induced AD-like pathology and produced inflammatory responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • hemorrhagic
  • The participants who suffer from ipsilateral stroke(ischemic or hemorrhagic) or death beyond 30 days to 12 months after any revascularization procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, only about 10% of strokes in the US are hemorrhagic, and as a result, the term "stroke" is often used interchangeably with ischemic stroke. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • While technically subarachnoid hemorrhage is a form of hemorrhagic stroke, the management of this disease has become quite specialized over the past decade and the reader is referred to recently published guidelines from the Neurocritical Care Society. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Despite some characteristic, though subtle, aspects to the presentation of ischemic stroke in comparison to hemorrhagic stroke, a CT scan is required to definitively distinguish between these two categories of stroke. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The use of CT is mandatory due to the opposite management approaches for ischemic vs. hemorrhagic stroke. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In general, ischemic stroke patients are allowed to have any systolic blood pressure below 220 mmHg, while hemorrhagic stroke patients should have their systolic blood pressures lowered to under 160 mmHg urgently for 4-6 hours, then under 140 for the duration of their stay. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • hypertensive
  • They noted that diffusion-weighted MRI following TIA or minor stroke shows hypertensive lesions, which decreases in intensity after 10 days, eventually disappearing after 2 to 3 weeks. (medpagetoday.com)
  • insult
  • Gap junction channels allow exchange of intracellular ions and molecules as large as 1 kDa between dying and viable brain cells, exchanged that has been suggested to be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the nature of the insult (ie, ischemia or trauma). (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate whether time of day of an ischemic insult influences clinically relevant outcomes in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • mice
  • Genetic ablation of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock (termed cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock mutant [CCM] mice) attenuated/abolished time-of-day variations in I/R outcomes observed in wild-type hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wild-type (WT) and CCM mice were housed under controlled conditions in a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle (lights on at zeitgeber time [ZT]0, lights off at ZT12). (ahajournals.org)
  • brains
  • The disclosed system and method have been shown to effectively exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, and other metabolites in severely stroked brains. (google.co.uk)
  • Imaging
  • Magnetic resonance imaging may detect variability of surgically induced ischemia before treatment and thus improve treatment effect evaluation. (ahajournals.org)
  • While MRI has become the gold standard acute stroke imaging, no published study has compared FMISO PET and MRI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Therefore, relying on imaging results from scans taken in the later phases of minor stroke may not reveal the true risk of future events for the patient. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Regarding TIA, early imaging showed stroke at any age to be 57% versus 42% at 90 days. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But if lesion distribution is skewed because of negative findings on late imaging exams, an understanding of the underlying cause of stroke is missed, they concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with a target enrollment of ~5000 patients with at least moderate ischemia on stress imaging. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With the advent of advanced MRI such as diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), the concept of using imaging criteria as opposed to strict time limits to identify patients likely to benefit from thrombolysis has demonstrated growing promise. (ahajournals.org)
  • Reducing the imaging time in MRI Dennis Healy 15. (bio.net)
  • perioperative
  • While diabetes is associated with increased risk of perioperative stroke among subjects who undergo carotid endarterectomy ( 1 - 3 ), women and minorities have been generally underrepresented in such trials ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Multivariate analysis indicated an increased risk of perioperative stroke in subjects with a history of diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)