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  • stimuli
  • A key player in this process is an ion channel in the skin's inner cell membranes that was only discovered seven years ago: Piezo2 responds to mechanical stimuli by opening when the cell membrane surrounding it expands. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until now, the assumption was that Piezo1 and Piezo2 reacted solely to mechanical stimuli - perhaps because of the unique structure of the two ion channels, which is fundamentally different to that of classical voltage-gated channels. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the membrane voltage is normal, which in most cells is ?60 mV, around 95 percent of all the Piezo channels are closed and remain closed even when exposed to mechanical stimuli," explains Lewin. (eurekalert.org)
  • This importance of voltage regulation is not only demonstrated by the fact that it has clearly existed for well over 100 million years, but Moroni also discovered a mutation in the Piezo1 channels of human blood cells that alters the voltage dependence of these ion channels, making them far more sensitive to changes in the membrane potential and thus more sensitive to mechanical stimuli. (eurekalert.org)
  • His new computer model takes slices of laser confocal microscopy images of cells and reconstructs a whole, virtual version of an individual cell, allowing researchers to evaluate how that cell will respond to different mechanical stimuli. (medindia.net)
  • 1 2 The exact mechanism by which trabecular outflow tissues sense and respond to different types of mechanical stimuli (i.e., elevated intraocular pressure, circadian rhythm, ocular pulse, shear flow) is not well understood. (arvojournals.org)
  • tissues
  • According to Prof. Gefen, applying mechanical loads on tissues can affect many different cells within our bodies. (medindia.net)
  • Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. (nih.gov)
  • Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. (nih.gov)
  • 10 Although the mechanism(s) responsible for the effect of cyclic biomechanical stress on trabecular tissues is not well understood, contractility has been suggested to play an important role in endothelial cell behavior generally and in outflow facility specifically. (arvojournals.org)
  • cells
  • Here we examine how two different cell types, one that undergoes the stress and the other that primarily remodels the matrix, might communicate a mechanical stress by using airway cells as a representative in vitro system. (mendeley.com)
  • We show that (i) mechanical stress can be communicated from stressed to unstressed cells to elicit a remodeling response, and (ii) the integrated response of two cell types to mechanical stress mimics key features of airway remodeling seen in asthma: namely, an increase in production of fibronectin, collagen types III and V, and matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9) (relative to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, TIMP-1). (mendeley.com)
  • When mechanical pressure is applied to the embryo, ß catenin enters the cell nucleus (on right), whereas to perform its role as an "adhesive" between cells it must be on the cell surface. (innovations-report.com)
  • But on applying mechanical pressure to the Drosophila embryo, Emmanuel Farge noted that the Twist gene was then expressed in all the embryo's cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Henceforth it will be necessary to take into account the mechanical sensitivity of living cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cells probably use this ability to protect themselves from mechanical overstimulation, as reported in an article published in the journal Nature Communications initiated and carried out by Dr. Mirko Moroni, the lead author, and other members of Lewin's research group. (eurekalert.org)
  • The mechanism seems to protect blood cells from the mechanical stress they would otherwise be permanently exposed to as they travel through narrow blood vessels. (eurekalert.org)
  • How fat cells respond to mechanical loads can be studied now through a new method developed by researchers at the Tel Aviv University. (medindia.net)
  • His research is driven by the theory that fat cells, like bone or muscle cells, are influenced by mechanical loads, defined as the amount of force or deformation placed on a particular area occupied by cells. (medindia.net)
  • By recreating the structure of fat cells using a newly-developed computer method, Prof. Gefen and his team of researchers can determine how much mechanical load can be tolerated by fat cells, and at what point the cells will begin to disintegrate. (medindia.net)
  • He believes that, much like bone or muscle cells, fat cells are also affected by mechanical loads. (medindia.net)
  • After assembling their "virtual" fat cells, Prof. Gefen and his group found that fat cells or lipids have a point where mechanical loads can disintegrate them, as well as a point at which they are able to resist disintegration. (medindia.net)
  • Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • The effects of dynamic mechanical stresses on the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism of human platelets and on the cell growth properties of murine tumor cells were studied. (rice.edu)
  • The cells were stressed by suspending them in laminar simple shear flows. (rice.edu)
  • Stress effects on tumor cells were studied using high and low metastatic sub-lines of the B16 melanoma and the RAW117 large cell lymphoma. (rice.edu)
  • The cells were stressed at 0, 450 and 900 dynes/cm$\sp2$ at 37$\sp\circ$C for 5 min. (rice.edu)
  • The results could by modeled assuming that a subpopulation of stressed cells was lethally damaged and ultimately died while a second group of stressed cells were only sublethally damaged and grew normally after a brief lag-time. (rice.edu)
  • The data indicate that there was not much difference in the damage levels between high and low metastatic sub-lines and that a considerable fraction of stressed cells were not lethally damaged even at bulk shear stresses as high as 900 dynes/cm$\sp2$ for 5 min. (rice.edu)
  • Although the stresses applied were higher than normally seen in vivo, the results are in contrast to the accepted view that mechanical stresses developed in the circulation directly cause the destruction of most of the tumor cells during blood-borne metastasis and that highly metastatic cells can resist these stresses more effectively than poorly metastatic cells. (rice.edu)
  • Mechanical forces exerted on cells impose stress on the plasma membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cells sense this stress and elicit a mechanoelectric transduction cascade that initiates compensatory mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effects of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) on the mechanical stretch-induced expression of airway remodeling-associated factors in human bronchial epithelioid cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to examine responses of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells to cyclic biomechanical stress in the presence and absence of compounds known to affect cell contractility. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although mechanical stress appeared to have no effect, Y27632 decreased phosphorylated myosin light chain, filamentous/globular actin ratio, and stress fiber formation in TM cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Human TM cells respond to cyclic mechanical stress by increasing intrachamber pressure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Erythrocyte fragility refers to the propensity of erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) to hemolyse (rupture) under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be thought of as the degree or proportion of hemolysis that occurs when a sample of red blood cells are subjected to stress (typically physical stress, and most commonly osmotic and/or mechanical stress). (wikipedia.org)
  • When multiple levels of stress are applied to a given population/sample of cells, a fragility profile can be obtained by measuring the relative or absolute extent of hemolysis existing at each such level, in addition to finding one or more single-number indexes (either measured directly or interpolated) associated with particular respective levels of hemolysis and/or corresponding stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragility testing can be useful to assess cells' ability (or lack thereof) to withstand sustained or repeated stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osmotic fragility (OF) refers to the degree or proportion of hemolysis that occurs when a sample of red blood cells are subjected to osmotic stress by being placed in a hypotonic solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uses of erythrocyte mechanical fragility can include diagnostic testing, calibrations to aid comparisons of hemolysis caused by blood-handling devices, or assessment of sublethal (i.e., non-hemolysing) damage caused to cells from devices that manipulate blood (such as for dialysis or intraoperative autotransfusion). (wikipedia.org)
  • They may give cells rigidity and strength, offering protection against mechanical stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • residual
  • In this paper, experimental results on the residual mechanical stress generated during the different steps of the photolithography process of SU-8 thin films using different photo-initiator percentages are presented. (nsti.org)
  • The main aim is to investigate the causes and optimise the fabrication process in order to minimise the residual stresses. (nsti.org)
  • The effects of residual stress in surface oxide layer and the interaction of stress field of neighboring TSVs are evaluated experimentally. (utexas.edu)
  • thermal
  • This paper presents a reference design flow for solving the electrical, thermal and mechanical challenges of a printed circuit board (PCB) using simulation tools from ANSYS. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The design flow details nearly all aspects of the modeling technique from studying electrical connections in a schematic and setting up the PCB to analyzing the electrical, thermal and mechanical characteristics of the board - all using ANSYS tools. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • By taking advantage of all the features and strengths of each ANSYS product, you can combine them to create a multiphysics solution for all the electrical, thermal and mechanical problems of a PCB. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • However, due to the large CTE mismatch between Silicon and Copper, thermal stresses are induced by various thermal histories from the process, and they have caused serious concerns regarding the thermal-mechanical reliability. (utexas.edu)
  • In this thesis, we mainly used Micro- Raman spectroscopy characterized the thermal-mechanical stress distribution at both near surface and cross-section of Si around TSV. (utexas.edu)
  • Drops in temperature can cause water to condense on the material as dew, a rise in temperature causes evaporation, and sudden rainfall can cause thermal stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • CO2 laser sources have also been used for depaneling, but are considered outdated as UV laser technology provides cleaner cuts, less-thermal stress and higher precision capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The molecular mechanisms for stress-induced myofibroblast differentiation are likely to involve stress-sensing molecules located in focal adhesions, such as the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-4. (ahajournals.org)
  • severe
  • As expected, the highest stresses occurred for a severe stenosis and a thin fibrous cap. (scirp.org)
  • For mid-range stenosis from 43% to 75%, there was a plateau region revealing that mild and moderate plaques were quickly exposed to the high stress condition of severe plaques. (scirp.org)
  • In conclusion, the particular combination of a mild to severe stenosis, a thin fibrous cap and a soft lipid core resulted in the highest mechanical stresses calculated at the proximal side of the plaque. (scirp.org)
  • Mild and moderate plaques can be subjected to stresses similar to severe plaques, possibly contributing to their rupture. (scirp.org)
  • Consequently, wind in alpine regions imposes severe mechanical stress on plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • bulk
  • Strain inside a material may arise by various mechanisms, such as stress as applied by external forces to the bulk material (like gravity) or to its surface (like contact forces, external pressure, or friction). (wikipedia.org)
  • considerable
  • However, during the fabrication process considerable internal stress is generated in SU-8 films, which causes the appearance of cracked features. (nsti.org)
  • pressures
  • Diffuse field acoustic testing is the testing of the mechanical resistance of a spacecraft to the acoustic pressures during launch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acoustic tests are used to verify the mechanical resistance of the satellite and its elements to acoustic pressures generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • The finite element models of lumbar motion segments were useful in analyzing internal stresses, given segment geometry, material properties and applied loads. (cdc.gov)
  • This gives time for the subsequent self-healing of the injury which in addition to wound closure also results in the (partly) restoration of mechanical properties of the plant organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • influence
  • This is the first time that a mechanical constraint has been shown to influence the genetic control of the development of Drosophila embryo. (innovations-report.com)
  • Richardson, P., Davies, M. and Born, G. (1989) Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. (scirp.org)
  • It was found that the major parameters that influence the generation of internal stresses were the exposure time, the post-baking temperature and time and the concentration of the photo-initiator used (Cyracure UVI). (nsti.org)
  • relation
  • Therefore, it is important to investigate each process step in relation to the internal stress formulation during the SU-8 fabrication process in order to attenuate stress cracking and distortions without significantly affecting lithography. (nsti.org)
  • characteristics
  • The thickness of the fibrous cap, the percentage of stenosed area, and the stiffness of the core were studied (commonly associated with vulnerable plaque characteristics) to quantify their effects on the cap's mechanical stress state by performing analyses using computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methods. (scirp.org)
  • different
  • The stress resulting from different levels of tension on its constitutive strands causes rapid dsDNA unbinding unless sufficient homology is present. (harvard.edu)
  • Second, the limitation of conventional Raman measurement is discussed, and two different kinds of innovative Raman measurements have been developed and employed to study the normal stress components separately by taking advantages of different laser polarization configuration. (utexas.edu)
  • adequate
  • It was concluded that: (a) The ceramics used possessed adequate mechanical strength for use as femur sections in rhesus monkeys for up to 180 days when used in combination with an intermedullary fixation device. (dtic.mil)
  • simulation
  • From the cross-section Raman measurements, the in-plane stress distribution in Silicon on the cross-section can be determined with reasonable assumption based on FEA simulation. (utexas.edu)
  • Bringing together experts from the various disciplines involved, this first comprehensive overview of the current level of stress engineering on the nanoscale is unique in combining the theoretical fundamentals with simulation methods, model systems and characterization techniques. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • high
  • The top view Raman measurements utilize so called "High NA effect" to obtain additional information, and can resolve all 3 normal stress components near the top surface of silicon. (utexas.edu)
  • physical
  • This result indicates that the physical stresses and chemical agonists (like thrombin) affect platelet AA metabolism differently. (rice.edu)
  • This is due both to the mechanical stresses imposed when moisture is absorbed or desorbed and to the chemical participation of moisture in the chemical evolution (and in some instances physical effects such as impact). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • at 25$\sp\circ$C. The stress stimulated AA metabolism above basal levels. (rice.edu)
  • Detection of vWD is complicated by vWF being an acute phase reactant with levels rising in infection, pregnancy, and stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • Immunocytochemistry staining was used to determine filamentous actin stress fiber content, whereas Western blot analysis was used to measure the extent of myosin light chain (p-MLC) phosphorylation and ratio of filamentous to globular actin. (arvojournals.org)
  • The local distribution of near-surface stress in Si has been measured, in comparison with stress analysis of the TSV structure based on a semi-analytic approach and finite element analysis. (utexas.edu)
  • Stress-strength analysis is the analysis of the strength of the materials and the interference of the stresses placed on the materials, where "materials" is not necessarily the raw goods or parts, but can be an entire system. (wikipedia.org)