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  • Bioethanol
  • P=So{1-[1+(Ke(Eo-LoLF)/(Ke+(Eo-LoLF))kdt](-k2/(Kekd))}1.11 P = Product (sugar) concentration So = Initial substrate (carbohydrate) concentration Eo = Initial enzyme loading concentration Lo = Initial lignin concentration LF = Lignin factor kd = Enzyme deactivation constant Ke = Equilibrium constant k2 = Reaction rate constant Finally, an economic optimization of bioethanol production was conducted. (ubc.ca)
  • cerevisiae
  • The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and ethanol production (0.29 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g −1 ) during anaerobic growth on l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to most S. cerevisiae and Frohberg-type S. pastorianus strains, S. eubayanus cannot utilize the α-tri-glucoside maltotriose, a major carbohydrate in brewer's wort. (tudelft.nl)
  • pathogenic bacteria
  • Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by. (tudelft.nl)
  • Colonization by bifidobacteria of the intestines of breast-fed infants increases rapidly within 1 week after birth, preventing infection by pathogenic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • When TCA cycle intermediates such as succinate or malate are employed as the carbon source, energy is generated via the TCA cycle and the ETC, while glucose and other sugars required for biosynthetic reactions are synthesized by a reversal of many of the reactions of the glycolytic pathways. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These were previously distinguished solely on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing but genome sequencing of five Ps1 and five Ps2 strains revealed that the phylotypes are distinct species and each encodes between 11 and 15 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The general strategy followed for the generation of microbial strains with the capacity to synthesize CA or pHCA from a simple carbon source involves performing genetic modifications that result in increased carbon flow to the L-Phe or L-Tyr biosynthetic pathways, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia
  • The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei , which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli , which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. (pnas.org)
  • genetically
  • This company realized that, because R. planticola is an aggressive and abundant soil bacterium, it could be genetically modified to destroy crop residue and also create ethanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ph.D. research conducted at Oregon State University , supervised by Elaine Ingham , obtained a sample of the genetically modified organism for assessing ecological effects through the German Institut für Biotechnologie and, testing it in non-sterile (ordinary) soil, found that the modified bacteria caused mass plant death from the ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • have speculated that without the independent test, the genetically modified bacteria might have been introduced in nature and then could have spread to contaminate the biosphere where it would cause worldwide plant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the episode " The Pyramid at the End of the World " of the BBC television show Doctor Who , the Doctor stops a genetically modified strain of R. Planticola from causing a worldwide plant and animal die-off similar to the scenario that some scientists have speculated about. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • Biomass includes materials containing cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, protein and carbohydrates such as starch and sugar. (google.com)
  • Biomass high in starch, sugar or protein such as corn, grains, fruits and vegetables are usually consumed as food. (google.com)
  • This bacterium ferments using the Enter-Doudoroff pathway, with the result that less carbon is used in cellular biomass production and more ends up as ethanol, another factor that favors this organism for ethanol production. (wishartlab.com)
  • Advantages of microalgal vs. plant biomass production include higher yield, use of non-arable land, recovery of nutrients from wastewater, efficient carbon capture and faster development of new domesticated strains. (springer.com)
  • Average productivity of the most common industrial strains is far lower than maximal theoretical estimations, suggesting that identification of factors limiting biomass yield and removing bottlenecks are pivotal in domestication strategies aimed to make algal-derived bio-products profitable on the industrial scale. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we draft the molecular events of photosynthesis which regulate the conversion of light into biomass, and discuss how these can be targeted to enhance productivity through mutagenesis, strain selection or genetic engineering. (springer.com)
  • Lactobacilli strains require a nutritional complex frequently found in media containing fermentable carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, nucleic acids precursors, and minerals to produce significant biomass (8, 11, 25), which results from a series of highly coordinated enzyme-catalysed events. (scielo.br)
  • pathway
  • These results suggest that the gene operon lnpABCD encodes a previously undescribed lacto- N -biose I/galacto- N -biose metabolic pathway that is involved in the intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria and that utilizes lacto- N -biose I from human milk oligosaccharides or galacto- N -biose from mucin sugars. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, the evaluation of transgenic lines of alfalfa down-regulated in the lignin pathway has shown increased sugar release from hydrolysis in comparison to the wild-type, and this phenomenon is directly related to the reduction of lignin content[ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lignin
  • model, which predicts sugar concentration during enzymatic hydrolysis, was made by enabling the model to account for changes in substrate lignin content. (ubc.ca)
  • Gauss and co-workers, mentioned for instance the advantage that glucose does not need to be separated from the lignin fraction following a separate enzymatic hydrolysis step, thereby avoiding a potential loss of sugar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls and impedes enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • The dme mutant strains incubated with succinate accumulated trehalose and hexose sugar phosphates, secreted malate, and relative to wild-type, these cells had moderately increased transcription of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and pathways that divert metabolites away from the TCA cycle. (beds.ac.uk)
  • While the pathways in this discussion start with sugar and finish as various end-products, there are several intermediate compounds formed along the way as one thing is converted to the next. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • starch
  • Traditionally, ethanol has been produced from starch or sugar based agricultural products, but today the focus is on different agricultural and forestry residues or side streams from forest industries. (google.com)
  • Among the barriers are the high costs of the lignocellulose conversion technologies, the low concentration and yield of ethanol, as well as the low production rates, which all increase the costs of ethanol produced from lignocellulosics, as compared to ethanol produced from starch or sugar based raw materials. (google.com)
  • genus
  • Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Raoultella . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acromyrmex and many other attines vertically transmit a mutualistic strain of Pseudonocardia and use antifungal compounds made by these bacteria to protect their fungal partner against co-evolved fungal pathogens of the genus Escovopsis . (frontiersin.org)
  • genome
  • We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • Among sulfate-reducing bacteria, genome sequencing has shown that D. vulgaris has developed well-defined protective enzymatic oxygen-defense systems ( 5 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genome analyses and invasion assays support our hypothesis that vertically transmitted Ps1 and Ps2 strains have antibacterial activity that could help shape the cuticular microbiome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phosphate
  • Part of the UhpABC signaling cascade that controls the expression of the hexose phosphate transporter UhpT. (uniprot.org)
  • resultant
  • The resultant engineered strains also lend insight into energetic and redox balance and elucidate mechanisms governing organic acid biosynthesis in this important natural SA-producing microbe. (asm.org)
  • aqueous
  • A strain of Raoultella planticola , Cd-1 has been found which grows anaerobically at high aqueous cadmium concentrations and precipitates insoluble cadmium sulfide . (wikipedia.org)
  • A hitherto accepted procedure of sterilisation, the autoclaving of concentrated aqueous solutions of sugars, has been found to enhance the ability of the sugar to inhibit sporulation. (springer.com)
  • concentrations
  • Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest because of their importance in cycling and transformation of essential nutrients and minerals ( 24 , 25 ) and of their links to different pathogenesis ( 26 , 27 ) in environments where extreme fluctuations in oxygen concentrations occur. (pnas.org)
  • hemicellulose
  • Conditions that increase substrate hydrolysability while limiting sugar solubilisation allowed for a maximum total sugar yield of 81.7% (92.1% of total cellulose and 68.2% of total hemicellulose). (ubc.ca)
  • efficiency
  • In an effort to improve the efficiency of this process, growing attention has been devoted to engineering new strains capable of simultaneously utilizing multiple sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microbiology
  • In 1866, Louis Pasteur , one of the pioneers of modern microbiology , isolated the first bacteria from wine and determined that all bacteria in wine were a cause for wine spoilage . (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Strains show variations in the arrangement of these BGCs that resemble those seen in gerumycin gene clusters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Then, we cloned the LNBP gene, lnpA , from the type strain B. longum JCM1217, whose sequence was almost identical to that of the BL1641 gene ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • acid
  • In sourdough breads, acid-producing bacteria are supplied in much greater numbers from starter. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • The Swiss enologist Hermann Müller was one of the first scientists to theorize that bacteria were a potential cause of acid reduction in wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Pasteur did notice an acid reduction in wine with the lactic bacteria, he did not link that process to a consumption of malic acid by the bacteria, but rather assumed it was just tartrate precipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Bacillus licheniformis MW3 as a GRAS and thermophilic strain is a promising microorganism for chemical and biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the engineered strain might be used as a platform for the production of other chemicals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A wine undergoing malolactic conversion will be cloudy because of the presence of bacteria, and may have the smell of buttered popcorn , the result of the production of diacetyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacteria produce organic acids that contribute, for good and bad, to the quality of bread. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • environments
  • There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. (mdpi.com)
  • succinate
  • In dme mutants utilizing succinate, malate accumulates and is excreted and these cells appear to increase metabolite flow via gluconeogenesis with a resulting increase in the levels of hexose-6-phosphates and trehalose. (beds.ac.uk)
  • oxygen
  • As carbo - hydrates , sugars are made up of carbon ( C ) and water, which is composed of hydrogen ( H ) and oxygen ( O ). The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are arranged in various configurations around a chain of carbon atoms which form the structural backbone of the molecule. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • The bacteria can even survive very high levels of oxygen in their natural environment ( 28 , 29 ), but the mechanism remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • carbon source
  • These experiments identified arabinose and W3110 expressing PAL/TAL from A. thaliana , aroG fbr and tktA as the carbon source/strain combination resulting in the best CA specific productivity and titer. (biomedcentral.com)