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  • birds
  • The proventriculus is a standard part of avian anatomy, and is a rod shaped organ, located between the oesophagus and the gizzard of most birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of few, large-sized stomach stones in birds and in other non-avian dinosaurs usually indicates a mainly carnivorous diet, suggesting that B. guoi may have had a raptorial ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the tarsometatarsi were more fused than in Archaeopteryx, the fibula was long and reached the distal point of the tarsal joint, not reduced as in more modern birds (and some non-avian theropods like Avimimus). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it was described in 1992, this 120 million-year-old sparrow-sized skeleton represented a new avian sharing "primitive" features with Archaeopteryx as well as showing traits of modern birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sinornis shared many traits with modern birds while retaining certain basal characteristics of Archaeopteryx, so that in 1992 it could be presented as the missing link in avian evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucosal
  • Various bird organs function to differentiate avian immune cells: the thymus, Bursa of Fabricius and bone marrow are primary avian lymphoid organs whereas the spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), germinal centers, and diffuse lymphoid tissues are secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • The avian immune system resembles that of mammals since both evolved from a common reptilian ancestor and have inherited many commonalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • This transfer of digested material can occur up to 4 times per minute, and the compartments can hold the stomach contents for thirty minutes to an hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • However, a third TCR, called TCR3, has been found in avian T cell populations that lack both TCR1 and TCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remains of hedgehogs have been found in the stomachs of European badgers (Meles meles), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Our discovery of the role of Scx in tendon differentiation during stomach organogenesis is unexpected and novel, and led to the publication of e research article in development on which I am first author. (theses.fr)
  • It is now clear that the bursa is the primary site of B cell lymphopoeisis and that avian B cell development has some unique properties compared to human or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)