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  • thermal stimuli
  • We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca 2+ rise in the dendrite (the Ca 2+ transient). (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study we have used a newly developed system for applying fast thermal stimuli to dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from young rats (150-200 g) in primary culture. (ovid.com)
  • brief stimulus
  • In young frog tadpoles ( Xenopus ), we show that a small region of caudal hindbrain and rostral spinal cord is sufficient to generate prolonged swimming in response to a brief stimulus. (jneurosci.org)
  • brainstem
  • This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific structures including the hypothalamus and the brainstem, two sites strongly involved in food intake regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data therefore indicate that a portion of nesfatin-1 neurons of both the hypothalamus and brainstem are sensitive to peripheral inflammatory signals, and provide the first clues suggesting that centrally released nesfatin-1 may contribute to the neural mechanisms leading to endotoxaemic anorexia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurons expressing nesfatin-1 are found located in various areas including the brainstem (NTS, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus: DMNX) and hypothalamic nuclei (ARC, PVN, SON). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intracellular
  • Intracellular recordings from nonlemniscal thalamic neurons in anesthetized guinea pigs showed that the transition of membrane potentials from up to down state could rapidly time-lock to the rhythmic sound stimuli with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) on the order of seconds. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Xenopus embryos, previous intracellular recordings and dye fills have shown that possible reticulospinal neurons were active during swimming ( van Mier and ten Donkelaar, 1989 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Increases in intracellular calcium induced by cooling in rapidly adapting neurons are caused by calcium entry. (ovid.com)
  • receptor
  • The vomeronasal receptor neurons possess axons which travel from the VNO to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or, as it's also known, the vomeronasal bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • recordings
  • We used paired whole-cell patch recordings to identify hindbrain neurons in this region that actively excite spinal neurons to drive sustained swimming. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our recordings provide direct evidence for feedback excitation among neurons within a network that drives a prolonged response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we use simultaneous recordings of spiking activity from up to 12 neurons to show that, in the cat visual cortex, the pairwise delays between neurons form a preferred order of spiking, called firing sequence. (jneurosci.org)
  • Longitudinal arrays of four iridium oxide electrodes were used to obtain single-unit recordings in supragranular, granular, and infragranular neurons in urethane anesthetized mice. (eneuro.org)
  • fMRI studies have been used in an attempt to measure these potential latency differences but the temporal resolution is not very precise and single cell recordings typically do not show shortened latencies to repeated stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • This situation is partly the result of the many different experimental settings, and the difficulty to separate the intrinsic properties of a single neuron from measurements effects and interactions of many cells ( network effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • Flanking interactions between such stimuli were found to be limited to the RF. (arvojournals.org)
  • rhythmic
  • To detect objects, rodents scan the environment by rhythmic movements of whiskers at 4-12 Hz, suggesting that this rhythmic behavior may facilitate stimulus detection. (eneuro.org)
  • temporal
  • The linear filtering stage performs dimensionality reduction, reducing the high-dimensional spatio-temporal stimulus space to a low-dimensional feature space, within which the neuron computes its response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through iterative computation, PCNN neurons produce temporal series of pulse outputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • So, how does the same set of neurons orchestrate these two different types of behavior? (elifesciences.org)
  • Further work is now needed to explain how these two different patterns of activity in one set of neurons is translated by the fruit fly's brain into different patterns of behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we explore the behavior of reliability in bistable neurons near threshold using three types of driving stimuli: constant, periodic and stochastic. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • simultaneous
  • Using high-resolution time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that PTP opening only follows simultaneous activation with two physiological stimuli that generate critical threshold levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+. (unipd.it)
  • The response to an optimal stimulus centered in the neuron's RF, is suppressed by the simultaneous presentation of flanking stimuli within the RF. (arvojournals.org)
  • generate
  • A biological neuron model , also known as a spiking neuron model , is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane , roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • inputs
  • That is, if neurons listen to the timing of inputs, do they hear anything worth listening to? (jneurosci.org)
  • Animals can sense diverse sensory inputs such as optical stimuli, plumes of volatile chemicals, acoustic waves, and atmospheric temperature by using a variety of specific sensory organs. (elifesciences.org)
  • For neurons sensitive to multiple dimensions of the stimulus space, the linear stage of the LNP model can be generalized to a bank of linear filters, and the nonlinearity becomes a function of multiple inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurrence can be seen when sensory inputs couple to work together or overlap, so that they can take an average of incoming signals and random stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Hi, I have been trying to configure NetStim to fire background noise (poissonian) along with stimulus specific activity from 300 to 350 ms. The background activity frequency is 1 Hz and I want to do it for 100 NetStims. (yale.edu)
  • When a Xenopus tadpole is immobilized by blocking neuromuscular transmission, a brief skin stimulus can still trigger motor nerve activity to the swimming muscles lasting for seconds or minutes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the information encoded by the precise timing of a hippocampal neuron is detectable only in relation to the activity of other neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • measured the activity in the class IV neurons in two different ways. (elifesciences.org)
  • First, the levels of calcium ions in the neurons, which play a key role in neurons' activity, were imaged using a calcium-sensitive biosensor. (elifesciences.org)
  • Second, electrodes were used to directly on the class IV neurons to record changes in their electrical activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • The experiments showed that class IV neurons responded to heat by producing a characteristic burst of electrical activity followed by a pause, and that this pattern of electrical activity was accompanied by a large rise in the calcium signal. (elifesciences.org)
  • In contrast, the same neurons did not show this 'burst and pause' pattern of activity when the fruit fly larvae were exposed to ultraviolet/blue light. (elifesciences.org)
  • Loss of activity in the set of neurons tuned to a particular stimulus alters its overall representation and potential identification, thus forming a basis for visual crowding effects. (arvojournals.org)
  • spikes
  • It is therefore thought that all of the information a sensory neuron encodes about the outside world can be inferred by the pattern of its spikes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly
  • Accordingly, an important aspect of biological neuron models is experimental validation, and the use of physical units to describe the experimental procedure associated with the model predictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, both stressful and pleasurable stimuli can induce an increase in the extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. (unica.it)
  • sequences
  • We find that (1) groups of synchronized neurons form firing sequences, each neuron having its own preferred firing time relative to all other neurons in the group. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3) Firing sequences are not fixed ("hardwired") but change as a function of stimulus properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5) The degree to which firing sequences replicate across repeated stimulus presentations allows for reliable coding. (jneurosci.org)
  • peripheral
  • The cilium, however, only has the nine pairs of peripheral microtubules while it lacks the axial pair of microtubules, making its structure very similar to the cilia of neurons, Schwann cells, and astrocytes of the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • representation
  • Specific topics that will be covered include representation of information by spiking neurons, processing of information in neural networks, and algorithms for adaptation and learning. (coursera.org)
  • Along similar lines is the idea that repetition causes the neurons that are less relevant to the representation of the stimulus to stop firing when that stimulus is repeated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key concept in this model is that information travels faster through the network when the current stimulus representation overlaps with a previous representation, driven by more rapid onset of neural activation with repeated presentations. (wikipedia.org)